Garden planning and design is an ancient and young discipline in China. It is said to be ancient because the history of gardening can be traced back thousands of years, and there are a lot of examples and theories of traditional gardens in the world. However, due to the development and evolution of this discipline in practice, it is both an integration with modern society and a matter of recent decades.
Before the 1980s, there were few people in the garden planning and design industry. National power is limited. Except for individual outstanding works, it is still at a relatively basic level. Generally speaking, axes, scenic spots, landscaped greenery, and traditional or innovative garden architectural symbols have become common patterns in garden planning and design. The image of the park in people's minds is basically a pavilion under the shade of green.
Since the 1990s, economic development and urbanization have brought about the prosperity of urban garden planning and design in China. With the gradual improvement of urban functions, parks, green squares, ecological corridors and suburban scenic spots have become the modern symbol of the city and the inevitable way to improve the quality of urban environment, life and culture. The functional positioning of urban garden ecology, landscape, culture, rest and risk reduction has been gradually recognized by the industry. From traditional gardens to urban greening and suburban integrated landscape, the concept of landscape planning and design is gradually deepening and improving, and the field is also expanding. On the basis of the traditional culture, the designers constantly combine the national conditions in practice, absorb some new thoughts and ideas from abroad, and adapt to the needs of modern life to create a batch of better works. Landscape architects not only lead the landscape planning and design, but also participate in the overall urban planning to intervene in urban design from a larger and wider level.
Modern landscape planning and design must innovate the concept of planning and design, actively absorb the advanced experience and technology of foreign landscape planning and design, and combine the cultural characteristics and local customs of this region to design excellent landscape art works. At the same time, the planning and design of modern landscape gardens should give full play to their ecological, cultural and economic functions to create a good ecological environment for promoting the sustainable development of modern cities.
Landscape engineering is to beautify the environment within a specific range. It is very scientific and artistic. Landscape engineering is the reasonable construction in the region of green space or landscape architecture. The development of garden engineering is related to the development of regional economy, environment and culture.
Since the reform and opening up, with the rapid development of social economy and the acceleration of urbanization, various environmental problems have gradually emerged. At the same time, the improvement of material and cultural living standards also puts forward higher requirements for spiritual needs. People's desire for nature and pursuit of beauty have promoted the further development of the garden industry. Gardening is not only a discipline, but also an art. The landscape is divided into two categories, namely natural landscape and human landscape. Natural landscapes, such as land, rivers and oceans, were created before man. After human civilization, human landscape is a kind of landscape which has been transformed by nature and injected with human will and activity. From an aesthetic point of view, the garden landscape art comes from nature and life. In life, the pursuit of beauty has never ceased, and mankind achieves this goal through the creation of art. Under normal circumstances, people tend to pay more attention to the formal beauty of garden landscape. The beauty of garden landscape comes from its artistic creation. When people appreciate and evaluate the beauty of garden, they focus on its artistry. However, the development of the garden industry is not perfect. There are many problems. How to develop systematic and modern landscape architecture with Chinese characteristics requires us to think systematically about the present situation and future development of landscape engineering.
Facing the reality of the ever-changing project construction, this book introduces the concept, design, construction, management, landscape art and its application of garden engineering. Combined with the latest technology and concept of modern garden engineering construction, this paper analyzes this problem systematically and comprehensively, and puts forward basic and effective solutions and scientific principles to provide reference for the majority of garden workers. This is our intention to write this book. As the book contains more content, involves more cumbersome knowledge, and has more compilers, the format, depth and breadth of the contents of each chapter may not be inconsistent; and the fallacies are inevitable. Readers are invited to criticize and correct. Suggestions for improvement will be gratefully received.
Mental illness is a type of illness that seriously endangers physical and mental health. With the rapid development of society and economy and the continuous improvement of living standards, the prevalence of various mental and psychological disorders has shown a significant upward trend. According to statistics from the World Health Organization, five of the top ten diseases that cause incomplete human labor are mental illnesses.
This book is based on psychiatric monographs and related journal literature published in recent years at home and abroad, and combined with the author's years of clinical practice experience.
This book introduces the etiology, classification, examination and medical history of mental disorders, systematically explains common clinical mental illnesses, and summarizes the clinical medications for mental illnesses. We hope this book will help the clinician.
After the 20th century, the production of electricity mainly depends on thermal power plants, hydropower stations and nuclear power plants. Tidal, geothermal and wind power are also used to generate electricity where conditions permit. The transmission and distribution of electrical energy is mainly achieved through high and low voltage AC power networks. As the development direction of transmission engineering technology, its emphasis is on researching UHV (over 1 million volts) AC transmission and DC transmission technology to form a larger power network; meanwhile, it is also necessary to study the technical problems of superconductor power transmission. The large-scale power system emerged in the 20th century integrated power generation, transmission, substation, distribution and electricity consumption into an organic whole. It has become a physical engineering system with the widest span of space, strict coordination of time and extremely complicated division of labor.
Since the 1880s, electric power has gradually replaced the steam engine, the technological symbol of the industrial revolution in the 18th century, and become the technological basis of the material and spiritual civilization of modern society. In the past 30 years, HVDC transmission technology has made rapid progress and has been widely used in some transmission fields.
This book is divided into eight chapters to analyze and elaborate the power engineering technology in detail, and the content is comprehensive. We hope this book will be helpful to the related work.
In recent years, the combined use of Chinese and Western medicine is very common in clinical practice, especially in basic-level hospitals, where the combination of traditional Chinese and western medicine treatment model has become routine. A large number of studies have shown that the combined application of Chinese and Western medicine has both advantages and disadvantages. The problem is how to use a large number of clinical practice or experimental research to confirm the scientific, practical and therapeutic significance of combined application of Chinese and Western medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine belong to different medical systems, but their clinical application is to achieve the purpose of treatment. If the combination of Chinese and western medicine can be applied scientifically and reasonably, it can improve the treatment effect, reduce the number of chemical drugs and toxic side effects, and make the disease recover quickly. It has many advantages.
The combination of traditional Chinese and western medicine is the characteristic and highlight of the development of China’s medicine. It is also our advantage to shorten the gap with developed countries in medicine and catch up with/surpass the advanced world level with our own characteristics. With the care and support of leaders at all levels, the combination of traditional Chinese and western medicine has gained a good foundation after decades of hard work.
This book will discuss four aspects: anatomy of Chinese medicine, research and development course of integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine, diagnosis and treatment of common internal diseases in combination of traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, diagnosis and treatment of common surgical diseases in combination of traditional Chinese and Western Medicine.