The construction management of construction project is of great significance to the quality and cost of construction project. At the same time, “construction management of construction project” is an important course of civil engineering and engineering management. Its main task is to study the general rules of organization and management of engineering project and unit project in the construction process. It is a practical, comprehensive and
professional course involving a wide range of knowledge.
The feature of this textbook is to integrate the construction methods of roads, bridges and pipelines in municipal engineering scientifically and reasonably, so as to make them more systematic, taking the municipal engineering construction as the object and following the principle of “highlighting the key points, focusing on practicality and avoiding repetition”. In the compilation of this book, attention shall be paid to the connection with the basic theories and knowledge of relevant disciplines, the application of new technologies, materials, processes and standards in production, and the cultivation of the ability to solve engineering practice problems shall be highlighted, so as to achieve a clear hierarchy, clear organization and reasonable structure.
The compilation of the series focuses on the combination of theory and practice, which has the characteristics of wide content, novel style, convenient access and strong operability. In the process of compilation, the series has referred to or quoted the data of relevant departments, units and individuals, referred to a number of works of the same industry in China, and received strong support and help from relevant departments and engineering consulting units. The author would like to express his heartfelt thanks. Limited to the author’s professional level and practical experience, although it has been carefully examined and certified, there are still omissions or irregularities in the series. Readers are welcome to criticize and correct them.
The Yellow River is the mother river of the Chinese nation, which breeds the splendid Chinese civilization, but it is also a complex and difficult river to control. With the passage of time, there are various new problems in the management of the Yellow River, and the water volume is decreasing year by year. Similarly, with the economic
development, the development around the Yellow River and the establishment of various factories have seriously polluted the water resources of the Yellow River. The existence of these problems has seriously affected the water quality of the Yellow River. Therefore, we should reasonably plan and protect the mother river, and establish a separate protection agency for supervision and management. This book mainly describes the situation of the Yellow River Basin in recent years, and studies the water resource management and protection of the Yellow River. It is hoped that this book can bring readers reference opinions and play a role in relieving the pressure of the Yellow River.
Water is the source of life, the key of production and the base of ecology. With the economic development and social progress, water has gradually developed from the lifeblood of agriculture to the lifeblood of the whole national economic construction and ecological construction, profoundly affecting all aspects of economic and social life directly related to national economic security, food security, ecological security, social stability and sustainable development.
The Yellow River has less water and more sand, and the relationship between water and sediment is not harmonious. The rapid development of economy and society and the benign maintenance of ecological environment in the Yellow River Basin and the areas beyond its lower reaches all put forward higher requirements for water resources. The contradiction between supply and demand of water resources in the Yellow River area is increasingly prominent, and the competition for water is increasingly fierce. On the one hand, the severe water shortage situation has led to a large number of industrial projects in some regions being unable to be approved due to water shortage, and nearly 10 million mu (1 mu = 1 / 15 Hm2, the same later) of farmland in the basin cannot be irrigated, which seriously restricts the sustainable development of economy and society. On the other hand, many areas do not pay attention to the endowment conditions of water resources, and use water resources excessively to occupy a large amount of water in the ecological environment, which leads to the deterioration of the relationship between river ecological environment and water and sediment. At the same time, many kinds of contradictions are complex, which makes the task of water resource management and regulation of the Yellow River very difficult. Therefore, it is urgent to carry out in-depth research on many problems existing in the utilization and protection of water resources in the Yellow River Basin, and put forward reasonable allocation, protection and management schemes according to the characteristics of water resources in the Yellow River Basin.
黄河水少沙多，水沙关系不协调，黄河流域及其下游流域外黄河地区经济社会的迅速发展和生态环境的良性维持均对水资源提出了较高要求，黄河流城水资源供需矛盾日益突出，用水竞争日益激烈。一方面，严峻的缺水形势导致部分地区大量工业项目由于缺水而无法立项，并导致流域内近 1000 万亩（1 亩=1/15 hm2，后同）农田无法灌溉，严重制约经济社会的可持续发展；另一方面，很多地区又不顾水资源的禀赋条件，竭泽而渔，过度利用水资源，大量挤占生态环境水量，导致河流生态环境和水沙关系不断恶化；同时，多种矛盾错综复杂，使黄河水资源管理与调度的任务十分艰巨。因此，亟须针对黄河流域水资源利用与保护中存在的诸多问题进行深人研究，针对黄河水资源特点，提出合理的配置和保护管理方案。
Since the industrial revolution, especially since the 1950s, with the rapid increase ofpopulation, the continuous improvement of living standards and the progress of human society, the intensity and depth of human exploitation and plunder of environmental resources have also been increasing. At the same time, a large number of wastes (waste water, wastes, waste gas and noise) have been discharged into the environment, causing unprecedented damage and interference to the ecological environment. As a result, a variety of pollution problems, natural disasters and ecological damage have emerged. At the same time, the polluted environment and unbalanced ecology in turn bring inconvenience and harm to human production and life, even disaster. Therefore, the environmental problems have aroused the widespread concern of the international community. The environmental crisis brought by industrial civilization has affected the healthy survival and development of human beings. To build a harmonious society, we need to build ecological civilization first, and the construction of ecological civilization needs public participation. Citizens should set up environmental morality and take part in the practical action of environmental protection. We can’t miss doing any good thing no matter how insignificant it looks. The earth environment is a complex ecosystem. To solve the environmental problems faced by human beings, it needs the cooperation of various disciplines and the coordinated development of multi disciplines.
With the continuous development of China’s economy, new environmental problems continue to appear, and the corresponding environmental protection work is also in the process of rapid development. Today, human beings have entered a new era of ecological civilization. We should realize that human beings are part of the life community of the earth. We should understand the natural ecology scientifically, respect the nature, conform to the nature and protect the nature, recognize that the natural ecosystem is the second wealth besides the social products, and fully consider the bearing capacity of the natural ecology for the social and economic development. We should save resources, protect the environment, repair the ecology. We should strive to achieve the harmonious, innovative, coordinated, green, open and shared development of human and natural ecology, and realize the common “sustainable development” between human and nature.
工业革命以来，尤其是 20 世纪 50 年代以来，随着人口数量的剧增、生活水平的不断提高和人类社会的进步，人类对环境资源的开发掠夺的强度和深度也日益增加，同时将大量的废物（废水、废弃物、废气和噪声等）排入环境，使生态环境遭受前所未有的破坏和干扰，从而产生了各种污染问题、自然灾害以及生态破坏。与此同时，污染的环境和失去平衡的生态反过来也给人类的生产生活带来了不便和危害，甚至是灾难。因此，环境问题引起了国际社会的广泛关注。工业文明带来的环境危机已经影响到人类的健康生存与发展。构建和谐社会首先需要建设生态文明，而生态文明建设需要公众参与。公民应树立环境道德，参与保护环境的实际行动，勿以善小而不为。地球环境是一个复杂的生态系统，解决人类面临的环境问题需要各专业相互合作及多学科协同发展。
The engineering construction products are complex and diverse, and a large number of manpower, financial resources, material resources, machines and tools need to be invested in the construction. At the same time, we need to fully prepare the construction preparation, construction technology, construction method scheme according to the characteristics and scale of the construction object, geological, hydrological and climatic conditions, drawings, contracts and supply of mechanical materials, so as to ensure the technical and economic effect and avoid the accidents, which put forward higher requirements for engineering construction management and technical personnel. Highway construction workers are the most basic technical and organizational management personnel
to complete the highway construction tasks, and they are the organizers and managers of the production line at the construction site. They need to command and coordinate basic technical personnel and labor personnel on the construction site, and they should strengthen the training of key construction technical knowledge.
The implementation of highway engineering supervision system is an important part of the reform of highway infrastructure management system in China, and an effective measure to improve the investment efficiency and construction management level. With the rapid development of national highway, the demand for highway engineering supervision technical personnel is increasing. It is urgent to cultivate a certain number of qualified highway engineering supervision personnel. In the stage of project construction, the main task of supervision engineer is that he must do a good job of “five controls, two management and one coordination” from the perspective of organization, technology, contract and economy, namely quality control, safety control, environmental protection control, cost control, progress control, contract management, information management
and organization coordination.
Transportation is the basic and leading industry of national economy. The development level of this industry has a very important connection with the development of national economy.With the rapid development of the world economy, China’s politics and economy have also been greatly improved. In transportation, from a single means of vehicle in the past to the common development of a variety means of vehicles, the development of transportation is more diversified, and the development level of transportation is also improved. As an important part of economic development, transportation cannot be ignored. After the reform and opening up, China’s industrial and agricultural production has developed rapidly, and its economic foundation has been strengthened day by day. With the urbanization process and th acceleration of economic development, new requirements have been put forward for the transportation between cities, cities and rural areas, and between rural areas.
At the same time, with the rapid development of social economy and the improvement of science and technology, the further development of design, construction and management technology of road and bridge in China has been greatly promoted.
The modernization of the bridge has introduced innovative ideas. Combined with the current social development situation, road and bridge engineering projects not only need to formulate scientific, reasonable and practical planning and design according to local conditions, but also need to pay attention to different road and bridge projects in the field construction process, as well as effective management measures and means from organization, cost, progress to quality, safety and technology, it’s all the most important. We are no longer satisfied with ensuring the safety and applicability of road and bridge use, but also adhere to the strategic factors of sustainable development, and put forward further requirements for improving the beautification of the engineering environmental landscape and strengthening the environmental protection in the construction process.
Of course, since the reform and opening up, especially in the past ten years, China has made great achievements in all aspects of the development of road, bridge and transportation. However, there are still some problems in the development process, which to some extent restrict the faster development of China’s road and bridge transportation system, thus restricting the sustainable development speed of China’s economic construction.
The design of highway and bridge has always been one of the most important problems in the construction of road and bridge. People’s enthusiasm for the design of highway bridge and modern transportation is growing, and the construction of road and bridge is becoming more and more mature. However, there are still some problems in the construction of roads and bridges, especially in the design of roads and bridges and transportation. In each chapter of this book, the author points out the existence and causes of the problems, and makes relevant measures and reflections on them, hoping to provide reference for the majority of road and bridge workers, which is also the intention of compiling the book Road Traffic and Bridge Engineering.
As this book covers a lot of contents, involves complicated knowledge and many writers, the format, depth and breadth of each chapter may not be the same, and fallacies are inevitable, readers are welcome to comment and correct.