Housing construction has always been an important part of China’s construction projects. With the development of China’s economic level and the continuous improvement of people’s living standards, China’s economy has gradually integrated into the global market, and a large number of large-scale construction projects have emerged, such as the Yangtze River Three Gorges project, Beijing Olympic project, Shanghai World Expo project, Beijing Shanghai high speed rail project, etc. Due to the continuous improvement of the requirements for housing construction projects in China, the early management, cost accounting, construction organization, construction coordination, quality management, safety management and so on in the process of housing project construction are particularly important.In order to meet the requirements of high standard of housing construction, it is necessary to strengthen the management of housing project construction to ensure the smooth completion of construction projects with quality and quantity guaranteed.
This paper makes full research and analysis on the management of housing construction projects in China from many aspects, including: the analysis of the current situation of housing construction project management in China; the research on the pre construction planning of housing construction projects in China; the analysis on the organization and management of housing construction projects; the analysis on the planning system of housing construction projects; the control, accounting, analysis and research on management; research on cost control of housing construction project; research on construction quality of housing construction project; research and analysis on environmental management and safety management of construction site of housing construction project.
Looking at the economic growth of developed countries in the 20th century, we can draw a conclusion that without innovation, there will be no economic development, no social progress, and it is impossible to improve the survival and development ability of enterprises. Today’s top 500 companies almost all rely on enterprise innovation to grow up gradually. With the development of science and technology and the arrival of the new economic era, enterprise innovation has changed from passivity and contingency to initiative and inevitability. Human beings have never been so devoted to the pursuit of innovation, and enterprises are more aware that innovation has become the soul that determines the survival and development of enterprises. What’s more, medium-sized and small enterprises are not only an important and active force in economic development, but also an important source of power for economic growth with their vigorous innovation activities. Therefore, it is more important to study the innovation of medium-sized and small enterprises for promoting the healthy development of medium-sized and small enterprises in China.
The development of enterprise innovation theory is a gradual process. In different development periods and different economic development stages, the innovation methods are often different. Therefore, this book analyzes the theory of enterprise innovation and its background and historical conditions, and puts forward the future development trend of enterprise innovation in the new economic situation.
Modern enterprise innovation practice shows that enterprise innovation is not a single technological innovation, but a comprehensive system engineering. Therefore, this book introduces the technological innovation, product innovation, market innovation, service innovation, organization innovation, management innovation and culture innovation of enterprises, and tries to summarize the rules from them, so as to provide innovation programs for small and medium-sized enterprises.
In the process of innovation, in addition to relying on market regulation, enterprises also need the government to provide necessary guidance and support. This book introduces the role of government in enterprise innovation and the principles, contents and methods of providing support.
Because it is relatively late for China to attach importance to small and medium-sized enterprises, and lags far behind the developed countries in the construction of innovation system, and now faces the challenge of new economy, how to realize and control the innovation of small and medium-sized enterprises in our country has become the primary problem. This book introduces the current situation and existing problems of innovation of small and medium-sized enterprises in China, and explores the ways of innovation of small and medium-sized enterprises in China.
In the process of planning and compiling this book, we have referred to a large number of domestic and foreign documents and materials, from which we can get inspiration; at the same time, we have also received the support and help from leaders, colleagues, friends and students. We would like to express our heartfelt thanks to you! Due to the rapid development of network information security technology, there are still some unsatisfactory aspects in the selection and compilation of this book. In addition, due to the limited knowledge level and time of the editor, there are inevitably shortcomings and errors in the book. We hope that the experts and readers of the same trade can correct it so as to further improve it.
纵观 20 世纪世界各发达国家的经济增长， 可以得出这样一个结论， 即没有创新就没有经济发展，就没有社会进步，就不可能提高企业的生存与发展能力。当今世界 500 强的大企业，几乎都是依靠企业创新从小企业逐渐成长起来的。随着科学技术的发展和新经济时代的到来， 企业创新已由过去的被动性、 偶然性走向了主动性、必然性。人类从来没有像今天这样致力于追求创新，企业也从来没有像现在这样认识到创新已成为决定企业生存与发展的灵魂。更值得一提的是，中小企业不仅是经济发展的一只重要而活跃的力量，而且以其富有生机的创新活动，为经济增长提供了重要的动力源泉。因此，深入研究中小企业创新问题对于促进我国中小企业健康发展更具有重要的现实意义。
With the development of information technology, the level of science and technology in our country has made rapid progress, and people’s life style has also changed a lot.Computer technology, network technology, communication technology, sensor technology, artificial intelligence technology, VR technology and many other kinds of science and technology in the information age have been integrated into people’s daily life. The Internet has become the most important way of information dissemination in today’s society. In order to meet the needs of people’s daily life and work, and facilitate the management and development of the city, China put forward the development requirements of smart city construction in 2011. The construction of smart city is directly related to the level of economic and technological development. Generally speaking, the higher the content of science and technology is, and the more developed the economy is, the earlier countries conceive smart city. Therefore, compared with the world, the construction of smart city in China is still in a relatively short time.
The purpose of the city is to provide sustainable prosperity for its citizens. The city stands at the top of the new century, new rights, new responsibilities, new economy, newpolitics and new technology. In the sustainable development of cities, human beings are facing major challenges and threats. The city must use new technology to transform the core system into an intelligent system and make the most of the limited resources.
Many cities around the world have begun to seize this opportunity. To grasp the pulse of the development of the times and realize the goal of sustainable and prosperous development of the city, we must combine the new technological revolution with the trend of urbanization development, and urgently need to find a comprehensive solution that follows the objective law of urban development. In this case, smart city becomes our inevitable choice and the only way for the future development of the city.
在信息化发展的今天，我国的科学技术水平有了飞速的进步，人民的生活方式也产生了很大的改变，计算机技术、网络技术、通信技术、传感技术、人工智能技术、 VR 技术等众多信息化时代下的科学技术已经融入人民的日常生活当中，互联网也成为当今社会中最重要的信息传播方式， 为了满足人民日常生活和工作的需求，便于城市的管理和发展， 我国在 2011 年提出了智慧城市建设的发展要求。 智慧城市的建设与经济、科技发展程度有直接联系，通常来讲，科技含量越高、经济越发达的国家对智慧城市构思越早。因此，和世界范围相比较，我国智慧城市的构建仍处于一种兴起时间比较短的事物。
This book is a relatively systematic and comprehensive English course and teaching theory textbook or compilation compiled according to the concept of Curriculum Standard for Teacher Education (Trial). The features of this book are as follows: The first one is the combination of the concept and spirit of Curriculum Standard for Teacher Education (Trial) and English Curriculum Standard (Revised Version); second, it not only reflects the latest development results of the English discipline and its related disciplines, but also devotes itself to combing and presenting the traditional discipline theory; third, it combines the practicality and theory, especially reveals the law of education and teaching of English course as a practical subject, and provide a large number of practical cases for
users to refer to.
This book can be divided into two parts from the content, the first part is mainly about theoretical knowledge, including language and language teaching concept, modern language teaching concept, mother tongue and second language acquisition concept, etc. The second part is mainly about practice. This book analyzes and studies modern English teaching methods and curriculum development methods. Consciousness plays a very important role in guiding behavior. Therefore, establishing a scientific concept of English teaching can play a positive role in promoting the follow-up teaching behavior and lay a solid foundation for the cultivation of high-quality talents. At the same time, all theories and concepts need to be put into practice, and their connotations need to be gradually implemented from practice. The idea of this book is to combine theory with practice, “two hands grasp, two hands hard”. This book strives to provide effective reference for modern English teaching.
本书从内容上可分为两大部分，其中，第一部分主要为理论知识篇，包含语言与语言教学观念、现代语言教学观、母语及二语习得观等；第二部分主要为实践篇，针对现代英语教学方式与课程开展方式展开分析与研究。意识对行为具有非常重要的指导作用，因此，树立科学的英语教学观念，能够对后续的教学行为产生积极的推动作用，可为高素质人才的培养打下坚实基础；同时所有理论和观念都需要付诸实践， 从实践中逐步落实其中内涵。 本书撰写的理念便是将理论与实际相结合， “两手抓，两手硬”，力求为现代英语课程教学提供有效的参考。
Library informatization refers to the use of modern information technology, in accordance with the requirements of the information society, the organization,development and management of library information resources, to provide quality information services for library users. Specifically speaking, it is the digitalization of information storage, the networking of transmission means, the intellectualization of management and control, and the informatization of personnel quality. The public library is an important place for the permanent preservation of human cultural heritage. It is also a knowledge palace for citizens to study for life, popularize scientific and cultural knowledge, and improve citizens’ quality. But at present, most of the grass-roots public libraries are still based on the traditional service methods and service means. Its various limitations and backwardness, in the highly developed information today, are far from meeting the urgent needs of people for information knowledge, which requires us to increase the strength of the grass-roots public library information construction. The informatization construction of grass-roots public library is the need of accelerating the network of public library, realizing resource sharing, deepening information service and further promoting the development of public library. Applying computer technology and network technology to the library will improve the work of the library as a whole, provide more advanced services for the readers at the grass-roots level, and greatly promote the improvement of the public quality. At the same time, with the continuous increase of the national investment in cultural undertakings and the full implementation of the national cultural information resource sharing project, it provides a strong impetus for the traditional public library to move forward to the digital library. Therefore, the information construction is imperative no matter from the construction of the public cultural service system or the development needs of the grass-roots public library itself.
This book mainly starts from the basic concept of the library, through the characteristics of the library, the development and application of management, as well as the combination of informatization and library management, and continuously strengthens the innovative research on library management informatization, so as to better improve the efficiency of the whole library management and provide better services for readers.