In the history of human civilization, the relationship between water and human beings occupies an extremely important position. As a natural resource, water nurtures hundreds of millions of people on the earth, promotes the development of industry, agriculture and even social progress, making it an irreplaceable material basis for human survival. At the same time, water is also the most basic environmental factor, participating in the process of material circulation and ecological balance on the earth. It is no exaggeration to say that without water, there would be no life on the earth, let alone the prosperity and development of the world today. Since ancient times, the development and utilization of water resources have never been interrupted. Long term practice has made people accumulate rich knowledge and master various water intake and water use techniques, some of which have been used up to now.
This paper mainly describes two parts. One part is the basic knowledge of hydrogeology, including groundwater resources and its classification; the other one is about the development, utilization and management of water resources. The surface water and groundwater are regarded as an organic whole water resources system. From the viewpoint of system science and environmental science, the evolution law of groundwater resources under the joint action of natural conditions and human activities is discussed, and the practical evaluation and prediction methods are put forward, so as to formulate the engineering plan and scheme of rational development and utilization of water resources for the sustainable development of social economy and environment.
Due to the author’s lack of experience, there may be mistakes and omissions in the article. The hopes the readers can give criticism and correction.
本文主要讲述了两部分内容，一部分是阐述了水文地质的基础知识，包括地下水资源及其分类等知识；一部分讲述了水资源开发、利用与管理知识。将地表水和地下水视为一个有机整体—水资源系统，从系统科学和环境科学的观点，研讨在自然条件和人为活动共同作用下水资源的演化规律， 提出切合实际的评价、 预测方法，进而为社会经济、环境可持续发展制定合理开发利用水资源的工程计划和方案。
Water conservancy project is the infrastructure of national economy, which provides an important guarantee for people’s production and life at all stages of social development. Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the construction management of engineering projects has gone through the construction management of the great leap forward mode in the early stage of new China’s recovery, construction management under the planned economy mode, and the current project legal person responsibility system, bidding system, construction supervision system and contract management system, which are the four systems of construction management currently implemented. A large number of engineering projects have been built in each stage, including many high-quality projects and some poor quality projects. At present, the “four systems” construction project management mode is implemented in the construction market. There are many high-quality projects, but there are also “bean curd dregs” projects, and even “projects” that spend project investment without the implementation of engineering construction. It can be seen that the level of project construction management quality has great flexibility. Because of this, the application of project management has a lot of space. The study of project management theory and practice is conducive to the efficient management of national and local construction projects, and helps to improve the overall level of national project management. According to the actual situation of various regions, scientific management, reduce costs, ensure the construction period, quality and project performance, will produce huge economic and social benefits.
The quality of project construction management is the product of the combination of administration and technology. There are many factors affecting the quality, and it is also quite complex. This book elaborates the standardized management of water conservancy projects in detail. Due to the influence of timeliness, there are many fallacies and deficiencies in the book. Readers are welcome to correct them for improvement.
Water is the source of life, the basic material of organisms, the irreplaceable basic resources for human survival and development, and the environmental conditions for all living things on the earth. The development history of human society can also be regarded as the history of understanding, development, utilization and protection of water to a certain extent. Human beings use a lot of human, material and financial resources to control floods. At the same time, it is necessary to develop and utilize water resources to promote the rapid development of social economy. Water resource itself is not only a resource, but also a control factor of the environment. Water resource development not only brings rich benefits to people, but also has a certain impact on the ecological environment. Therefore, people pay more and more attention to the rational development, utilization and protection of water resources.
Water conservancy project and ecological environment not only studies the problems related to the environment in the process of human development and utilization of water resources, but also studies the impact of water environment changes on water planning, construction and operation management, as well as human survival and development. Its purpose is to promote the development and utilization of water resources, reduce the adverse impact on the environment while giving play to economic benefits, maintain ecological balance and increase the role of improving the environment. Environmental water conservancy engineering technology is helpful to improve water ecological environment, overcome the adverse impact of water supply ecological environment of water conservancy project itself, and promote the development and utilization of ecological environment function of water conservancy project. Therefore, in the future water conservancy project construction, ecological environment water conservancy engineering technology will play an extremely important role.
This paper is mainly from the water conservancy construction technology, through the analysis and research of water conservancy construction technology, so as to better connect with ecological protection, realize the harmony between human and nature, and promote the sustainable development of ecological environment.
“Ecology” is one of the words with high click rate at present, and “ecology” is derived from biology, which is a new comprehensive discipline, and is “a discipline that studies the relationship between organisms and between biological and abiotic environments”. At the end of the 20th century, people found that the earth’s ecological environment was deteriorating, so ecology derived from geo ecology, marine ecology, desert ecology and other marginal sciences. Ecological water conservancy was also formed under this background.
Ecological water conservancy covers a wide range, including ecological rivers, ecological lakes, ecological basins, ecological groundwater and ecological coast and other aspects related to water, among which ecological river is the most important and active component. In the natural science ecosystem and the social ecosystem of the relationship between man and land, rivers always play an important role. In all the earth’s ecosystems, geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere and anthroposphere have their own relatively independent ecosystems, but there are very complex and sensitive processes of material transfer, energy transfer and information transmission among them. Water, especially rivers, is the most active factor and carrier. Therefore, people often deify water and river. When there is more water, less water, muddy water and dirty water, all kinds of information will be quickly fed back to human beings.
This paper mainly starts from the construction of water conservancy projects, summarizes and sorts out many construction technologies, and adds green environmental protection technologies, so as to deepen the research on green construction of water conservancy projects and realize the sustainable development of water conservancy projects in China.
“生态”是目前点击率很高的词汇之一，而“生态学”源于生物学，是一门新兴的综合性学科，是“研究生物之间及生物与非生物环境之间相互关系的学科”。在 20 世纪末，人们发现地球生态环境不断恶化，于是生态学又衍生出地质生态学、海洋生态学、沙漠生态学等边缘科学，生态水利也是在这种背景下形成的学科。
生态水利涵盖面很广，它包括生态河流、生态湖泊、生态流域、生态地下水和生态海岸等与水有关的方方面面，其中生态河流是最重要、最活跃的组成部分。在自然科学生态系统和人地关系的社会生态系统中， 河流永远扮演着举足轻重的角色。在地球的所有生态系统中，地圈、水圈、大气圈、生物圈和人类圈虽然都各自具有相对独立的生态体系， 但在它们层面之间， 存在着极为复杂而又很敏感的物质转移、能量转移和信息传递过程，而水，特别是河流是最活跃的因子和载体。所以，人们常把水与河流神化，水多了，水少了，水浑了，水脏了等都会很快地反馈给人类各种信息。
China’s basic national conditions and water regime are that there are more people and less water. The spatial and temporal distribution of water resources is uneven. Since the founding of new China, especially since the reform and opening up, the state has attached great importance to water conservancy work. Great achievements have been made in water conservancy construction, which has made great contributions to economic and social development and people’s living and working in peace and contentment. However, the shortage of water resources in China is still very serious, and the lag of farmland and water conservancy construction is still the biggest hard injury affecting the stable development of agriculture and national food security. There are various types, forms, functions and regional characteristics of farmland and water conservancy infrastructure. Therefore, it is necessary to collect all kinds of small-scale farmland water diversion projects and famous small-scale irrigation and drainage facilities in production practice, so that the majority of grass-roots technical personnel can choose the corresponding cases and legends for optimal design according to local conditions.
This book mainly from two aspects of writing, describes the basic knowledge and concepts of farmland water conservancy, and then analyzes and studies the existing problems of farmland water conservancy, and then puts forward relevant management measures, and expounds the construction and management of farmland water conservancy projects in detail. This requires our country to pay attention to the farmland water conservancy project, cultivate the relevant technical personnel and comprehensive quality, lay the foundation for the smooth development of the construction of the water conservancy project, and promote the economic development and progress of our country.
Due to the lack of experience of the editor, it is inevitable that there are mistakes and defects in the book. Readers are eager to criticize and correct them.
我国的基本国情、水情是人多水少。水资源时空分布不均。新中国成立以来，特别是改革开放以来， 国家高度重视水利工作， 水利建设取得举世瞩目的巨大成就，为经济社会发展，人民安居乐业作出了重大贡献。但是，我国的水资源短缺形势仍然十分严峻，农田水利建设滞后仍然是影响农业稳定发展和国家粮食安全的最大硬伤。农田水利基础设施种类繁多、形式多样，功能各异，地区特色差异较大。因此，有必要汇集生产实践中存在的各类小型农田引水工程和名类小型灌联排水设施，以供广大基层技术人员因地制宜，选择相应的案例和图例进行优化设计。
本书主要从两方面进行写作，阐述了农田水利的基本知识和概念，然后对农田水利现有问题进行分析和研究进而提出相关管理措施，对农田水利工程的建设和管理进行了详细的阐述。这就要求我国对农田水利工程加以重视，培养相关技术人才和综合素质， 为农田水利工程的建设顺利开展打下基础， 促进我国经济发展和进步。