Financial management is based on the objective existence of financial activities and financial relations in the process of enterprise reproduction. It is an economic management work for enterprises to organize financial activities and deal with various financial relations.
Through the management of capital movement and value form, it penetrates into all management fields like production and operation of enterprises. Financial management is the management of asset purchase (investment), capital financing (financing), cash flow (working capital) and profit distribution. Financial management is an integral part of enterprise management. It is an economic management work to organize enterprise financial activities and deal with financial relations according to financial laws and regulations and the principles of financial management.
In modern enterprise management, financial management is a systematic project involving a wide range, comprehensive and restrictive. It is a comprehensive management of planning, decision-making and control of enterprise capital flow through value form. It is the core content of engineering economy and enterprise management.
Since the beginning of the 1980s, the audit work in China has developed rapidly. Both the establishment of audit institutions and the construction of audit laws and regulations, as well as the formulation and improvement of audit standards for various audit subjects, have made unprecedented progress. Audit education has also developed from scratch, and has been constantly developed and strengthened.
它通过对资金运动和价值形态的管理，像血液一样渗透贯通到企业的生产、经营等一切管理领域。财务管理是在一定的整体目标下，关于资产的购置（投资）、资本的融通（筹资）和经营中的现金流量（营运资金），以及利润分配的管理。财务管理是企业管理的一个组成部分， 它是根据财经法规制度， 按照财务管理的原则，组织企业财务活动，处理财务关系的一项经济管理工作。
自 20 世纪 80 年代初我国开展审计工作以来，我国的审计事业发展迅速。无论是审计机构的设置与审计法规的建设，还是各种审计主体审计准则的制定与完善，都取得了前所未有的进步。审计教育事业也从无到有，并得到不断的发展与壮大。
With the progress and development of economy, both urban industry and rural agriculture, even people’s daily life, have been inseparable from power resources. The substation affects the power supply, and the substation technology affects the safe and stable operation of the substation. With the increasingly modern and intelligent substation, the technology of intelligent substation is also constantly innovating. As an important part of China’s power grid intelligence, the improvement of smart substation technology can effectively promote the construction of smart substation, improve the safety performance of smart substation, and promote the intelligent construction of China’s power grid. In recent years, the intelligent substation technology has made rapid progress, and has achieved good results in practical application. Especially in the power engineering system, the intelligent substation technology has greater advantages. According to the characteristics of the intelligent substation, this paper analyzes the defects in the intelligent substation technology, so as to take effective measures to optimize the intelligent substation technology, which can effectively improve the safety, real-time and stability of the substation, and ensure the safe and stable operation of the power system.
Intelligent substation technology is a process of gradual development, and the mode and method of integrated testing are also in the process of continuous development. This book puts forward the corresponding test methods for the existing power engineering and intelligent substation construction mode and application technology, with the purpose of providing technical guarantee for the orderly construction and safe operation of the current power engineering and intelligent substation, and providing some experience for the development of intelligent substation test technology in the future, also provides valuable reference for technical management, test, operation, maintenance and other professionals in power system.
智能变电站技术是一个渐进发展的过程，集成测试的模式和方法也处于不断发展的过程中，本书对现有电力工程以及智能变电站建设模式和应用技术提出相应的测试方法，目的是为目前电力工程及智能变电站的有序建设和安全运行提供技术保障， 为今后智能变电站测试技术发展提供一些经验借鉴， 也为电力系统中技术管理、试验、运行、检修等专业人员提供有价值的参考。
Chemistry is the basis of natural science. The course of “Fundamentals of Material Chemistry” for undergraduates majoring in materials, metallurgy, energy, mining and metallurgy, environment and other non chemical and chemical engineering majors is aimed at cultivating students’ scientific thinking method, scientific literacy, innovative spirit, engineering consciousness, engineering ability, inspires students to understand the position of chemistry in the development of natural science and the role of chemistry in improving human life and production level. “Fundamentals of Material Chemistry” pays attention to the relationship between chemistry and society, life, production and research, emphasizes the application of chemical knowledge, and strives to reflect the social demand value of chemical knowledge.
Chemistry is closely related to people’s life. As long as you observe carefully, chemistry can be seen everywhere around us, and it affects our life from time to time. From the universe and the earth, to the air, water and food around us, there are “chemical” substances. Even our human beings are made up of various chemical elements. Not only that, chemistry is also a very useful subject. There are many laws to follow in the world. Some substances can be converted to each other, and some substances will have incredible changes together. Mastering these laws is of great guiding significance to the progress of human civilization. It can be said that chemistry is one of the main methods and means for human beings to understand and transform the material world. It is a discipline with a long history and full of vitality. Its achievements are an important symbol of social civilization. From the primitive society of using fire to the modern society of using various man-made materials, human beings are enjoying the fruits of chemistry. With the help of chemical knowledge, we can carry out production and life more scientifically, make effective use of energy, reduce pollution, develop drugs for relieving pain, etc.
This book is mainly from the basic knowledge of chemistry, and introduces the corresponding chemical analysis and testing technology, so as to better present the whole chemistry foundation vein in front of readers, and lay a solid foundation for the further study of chemistry in the future.
化学与人们的生活息息相关。只要你细心观察，在我们周围化学处处可见，时时在影响着我们的生活。大到宇宙、地球，小到我们身边的空气、水、食物都含有“化学”物质，就连我们人类自身都是由各种化学元素构成的。不但如此，化学也是一门非常有用的学科，世界上的物质有很多规律可循。某些物质可以互相转换，某些物质在一起会发生不可思议的变化,掌握了这些规律， 对于人类文明的进步是非常有指导意义的。可以说，化学是人类用以认识和改造物质世界的主要方法和手段之一，它是一门历史悠久而又富有活力的学科，它的成就是社会文明的重要标志。从开始用火的原始社会， 到使用各种人造物质的现代社会， 人类都在享用化学成果。利用化学知识，我们可以更加科学地进行生产生活，有效利用能源，减少污染，研制缓解病痛的药物等等。
Water conservancy project is the crystallization of people’s labor wisdom, and also an important support for the survival and development of human society. With the rapid development of human society, the excessive construction of water conservancy projects often violates the laws of nature; the excessive development of water resources often makes the natural ecology overburdened; good water conservancy project management, often difficult to play a normal benefit, can not virtuous cycle. In the face of such a cruel reality, human beings began to correct their own ideas of water control under the premise of recognizing the important positioning of water conservancy projects.
The construction of water conservancy project is the work of building water conservancy project according to the requirements of engineering structure, quantity, quality, progress and cost proposed by the design. The application, operation, maintenance and protection of water conservancy projects are an important part of water conservancy project management. After the completion of water conservancy projects, effective management is necessary to achieve the desired effect and verify the correctness of the original planning and design; the basic task of project management is to maintain the integrity and safety of engineering buildings and equipment, and make them in good technical condition; in order to control, regulate, distribute and use water resources, and give full play to the benefits of flood control, irrigation, water supply, drainage, power generation, shipping and environmental protection. To do a good job in the construction and management of water conservancy projects is essential to give full play to the engineering functions.
This paper is mainly from the water conservancy project construction technology, through deepening the study of construction technology, combined with the management of the entire water conservancy project construction, which helps to promote the construction of modern water conservancy project to a new level.
水利工程施工是按照设计提出的工程结构、数量、质量、进度及造价等要求修建水利工程的工作。水利工程的运用、操作、维修和保护工作，是水利工程管理的重要组成部分，水利工程建成后，必须通过有效地管理，才能实现预期的效果和验证原来规划、 设计的正确性； 工程管理的基本任务是保持工程建筑物和设备的完整、安全，使其处于良好的技术状况；正确运用水利工程设备，以控制、调节、分配、使用水资源，充分发挥其防洪、灌溉、供水、排水、发电、航运、环境保护等效益。做好水利工程的施工与管理是发挥工程功能的鸟之两翼、车之双轮。
At present, water resources are increasingly affecting the economic and social development and the improvement of ecological environment. The total amount of water resources in China is relatively rich, but the per capita share of water resources in China is low, and the spatial and temporal distribution is uneven, which does not match the land resources and economic layout, so it is difficult to develop and utilize water resources. On the whole, it is faced with serious drought and flood disasters, prominent contradiction between supply and demand, extensive water use methods, and great pressure on water ecological environment. With the continuous growth of population, acceleration of urbanization, economic and social development, improvement of people’s living standards and global climate change, the contradictions and problems of water resources in China will continue to intensify, especially in the northern region. Due to the influence of continuous drought and human activities, the problem of water resources is more prominent.
The problem of water resources and water environment is being paid attention to by all walks of life. Reasonable development and utilization of water resources, scientific treatment of sewage, and strengthening the management and protection of water resources have become an important means and guarantee measures for the sustainable development of human environment, economy and society. The protection of water resources and the treatment of water pollution are very important contents. Therefore, it is necessary to put the protection of water resources in a more important position. It is proposed to strengthen environmental protection, actively promote regional environmental governance of key river basins, urban sewage and garbage treatment, agricultural non-point source pollution control, comprehensive treatment of heavy metal pollution, and strengthening the development of water resources science and technology. The rational utilization and protection of water resources is not only a major strategy that must be vigorously developed and urgently promoted in our country at this stage, but also a common subject faced by human society.