In recent years, with the rapid development of China’s infrastructure, China has established the basic national policy with economic construction as the center, and increased the scale of capital construction investment. In this context, highway construction, especially high-grade highway and bridge construction, has been developing rapidly. At the same time, railway construction, especially high-speed railway construction, has entered a period of rapid development. In addition, with the development of urbanization, municipal roads and subway projects have also been booming. The rapid development of the above-mentioned transportation industry determines the demand gap of a large number of road and bridge professional and technical personnel, and it has become an inevitable trend to cultivate talents with one specialty and multiple abilities.
This book systematically describes the basic knowledge of road and bridge engineering, introduces the development history and main construction technology of bridge engineering construction technology, reflects the rapid progress of domestic road and bridge engineering construction technology and management technology, especially the promulgation of various new specifications and standards, and the continuous promotion and use of new technology and new technology. The construction technology of subgrade, pavement and upper and lower part of bridge is changing with each passing day. However, there are still many problems and difficulties in it. It is necessary to establish a scientific and reasonable management system to ensure the smooth development of road and bridge engineering and promote the economic development of our country.
Due to the lack of experience of the editor, there are inevitably omissions and deficiencies in the book. Readers are requested to give more valuable comments for revision in the second edition.
本书系统地阐述了道路与桥梁工程的基本知识，介绍了桥梁工程施工技术的发展历史和主要施工技术， 体现出国内道路与桥梁工程施工技术与管理技术突飞猛进，特别是各项新规范、新标准的颁布以及新技术、新工艺的不断推广使用，路基路面和桥梁上下部施工技术日新月异。但是在其中仍然存在很多的问题和难点，需要对其建立完善科学合理的管理制度， 保证道路桥梁工程顺利开展， 促进我国经济发展。
China is a big mining country, mining industry is one of the pillar industries of national economy. Since the reform and opening up, with the acceleration of industrialization, urbanization and modernization, China has entered the stage of rapid growth of human resource consumption. The rigid demand of social and economic development for mineral resources is increasing, geological exploration tasks are increasing, mining development activities are intensifying, and the damage to mine geological environment is becoming more and more serious, so that once the speed of mine geological environment treatment can not catch up with the speed of destruction, the earth’s ecosystem is hard to bear, and many problems of old mines left over by history have not been solved, which makes the situation of China’s mines geological environment management complex and severe, and the task of restoration and treatment arduous.Mine geological environment problem has become a major practical problem to be solved urgently. It not only affects the healthy development of mining economy, but also affects people’s life and property, health and safety, and restricts the implementation of sustainable development strategy of national economy.
The ecological restoration of mining area has become an important part of ecological environment construction in China; at the same time, combined with land consolidation, comprehensive utilization of land resources is carried out to alleviate the contradiction between human and land resources; more importantly, through reasonable planning and implementation of the development of alternative industries, it solves the temporary negative impact of the current regional economy caused by the closure of some mines, so as to realize the transformation from black-and-white economy to green economy, and to resettle the industrial transfer personnel. Through the ecological restoration work of mining area, we can cooperate with the construction of new socialist countryside, promote the growth of green GDP, realize circular economy and build a harmonious society.
矿区的生态修复已成为我国生态环境建设的重要组成部分，通过对废弃矿区的生态修复，能够有效改善生态环境；同时结合土地整治，对土地资源进行综合利用，缓解人地资源的矛盾；更为重要的是通过合理规划实施替代产业的发展，解决由于一些矿山的关停造成的区域当前经济暂时负面影响，从而实现黑白经济向绿色经济的转变，安置产业转业人员。通过矿区的生态修复工作，配合我国社会主义新农村建设，促进绿色 GDP 的增长，实现循环经济，构建和谐社会。
In recent years, the basic and clinical research of neurosurgery has entered a new era. People’s understanding of nervous system diseases has gone deep into the molecular level. The progress of neuroimaging technology and the development of minimally invasive surgery have also improved the diagnosis and surgical treatment of nervous system diseases.
In the discussion part of this book, the concept and new progress of external science and neurosurgery are described, and then it is divided into neurosurgery foundation, craniocerebral injury, intracranial tumor, cerebrovascular disease, other neurosurgical diseases and neurosurgical operation basis, technology and nursing so as to provide practical theoretical guidance for the majority of medical personnel engaged in clinical and surgical neurosurgery.
As this book covers more contents, involves more complicated knowledge, and has more compilers, the format, depth and breadth of the contents of each chapter may not be consistent, and fallacies are inevitable. Readers are welcome to criticize and correct it.
Since the second half of the 20th century, with the development of urbanization in the world, the urban areas of various countries in the world are gradually expanding, and the urban population is gradually increasing, which makes all countries in the world face severe challenges in traffic problems. The trend of urbanization puts forward new requirements for the capacity and service level of urban public transport, and the development of urban traffic affects the function and development of the city. In order to make the urban functional activities can be carried out normally and efficiently, in order to protect the urban ecological environment and realize the sustainable development of urban social economy, countries all over the world take the solution of urban public transport as an
Rail transit appeared in cities as public transportation for a long time in the world. With the development of science and technology and urbanization, mass transit plays an increasingly important role in modern big cities. The history of urban transportation development in economically developed countries tells us that only by adopting rail transit system with large passenger traffic volume is an effective way to fundamentally improve the situation of urban public transport. As the application technology and basic theory of urban rail transit in China are still in the development stage, most of the project implementation is to introduce technology and equipment, and the low localization rate has become the main reason for the high project cost. Therefore, to improve the technical strength of China’s urban rail transit industry, give full play to the ability of independent construction, and strive to reduce the project cost should always be the key to the development of mass transit.
Ecological environment is the basis of human survival and development, which is related to the sustainable development of economy and society. In recent years, the world’s energy consumption has increased sharply and the ecological environment has been deteriorating. The sustainable development of human society has been seriously threatened. It has gradually become the consensus of the international community to strengthen energy conservation and emission reduction, save energy resources, protect the ecological environment and take the road of sustainable development.
Saving energy resources and protecting ecological environment are the focus of attention of all countries in the world. In recent years, the world’s energy consumption has increased sharply, the ecological environment has been deteriorating, and the sustainable development of human society has been seriously threatened. As a big energy consumption country, China has few per capita resources and small environmental capacity. It is an inevitable choice to save energy resources and protect ecological environment to promote the construction of ecological civilization.
Energy is not only the most important resource in the world, but also an important strategic material basis for social development and economic progress, and an important guarantee for national economic construction. With the rapid development of science and technology, only when the rational use of energy is implemented can we build a sustainable economy and a sustainable society, and finally protect the harmony of the ecological environment. Therefore, the research on “rational use of energy and protection of ecological environment” is the current stage of social development and economic growth must be explored.