With the development of economic construction and the improvement of people’s living standards, China’s heating industry has also been rapid development. The vast majority of public buildings and industrial enterprises in the northern region are installed with central heating equipment, and residential buildings are also installed with heating equipment, which makes the living more comfortable and hygienic, and the environmental conditions have been greatly improved.
Heating engineering is widely used in various sectors of the national economy, and is closely related to energy application, environmental protection, energy conservation and emission reduction, haze control and improvement of life quality. In order to make the heating system economic, energy-saving, safe and reliable operation, a large number of professionals with special knowledge are needed.
In the process of writing, the author explained profound theories in simple language, acted in cooperation from start to finish and made foreign things serve China on the basis of the actual situation. The description text is simple and clear; the concept and principle are explained with pictures and texts; the key points are highlighted in the graphic expression; the examples are matched with the hydraulic calculation method. The form and content of heating system are expanded and extended.
Due to the limited level of the editor, omissions are inevitable. Readers are requested to make comments and corrections.
City is the most important place for human beings to create civilization and gather wealth, and is a symbol of social progress and development. Urban road is not only one of the places where residents live, work and cultural entertainment, but also the main carrier of communication with the outside world. With the development of urbanization in China, the construction of new urbanization requires the construction of municipal road engineering in advance to meet the travel needs of the growing urban population. In order to cooperate with the construction of road engineering, it has become an important task to improve the theory and operation skills of employees in road detection institutions.
With the deepening of China’s capital construction system reform and the needs of the development of socialist market economy, it is an important measure to implement the supervision system in the construction of engineering construction projects. At present, China’s construction supervision is developing healthily and rapidly. It plays an important role in improving project quality, speeding up project progress and controlling project investment.
In the construction of urban road engineering, quality is the key of engineering construction. Any problem in any link and part will bring serious consequences to the overall quality of the project, directly affect the service life and benefit of the road, and even cause huge economic losses. Project quality control is the primary task in the process of road construction, and quality supervision is the focus of supervision work in road
Due to the limited level of editors, omissions and errors are inevitable. Readers are requested to make criticism and correction.
城市是人类创造文明和聚集财富最主要的地方，是社会进步和发展的象征。城市道路是居民生活、 工作及文化娱乐活动的场所之一， 又是与外界交流的主要载体。我国都市化发展，新型城镇化建设，都要求市政道路工程建设先行，以满足日益增长的城市人口出行需要。为了配合道路工程建设，提高道路检测机构从业人员理论和操作技能已成为现今社会的重要任务。
Enterprise safety culture is the fundamental factor to realize enterprise safety production. The basic purpose of building enterprise safety culture is to improve people’s safety quality. The most fundamental embodiment of people’s safety quality is people’s safety consciousness: “consciousness determines behavior, behavior performance quality, quality determines destiny”. Therefore, through the construction of enterprise safety culture, to improve the safety quality of all employees is a strategic move for enterprise safety development, is a fundamental policy to ensure safety production, and a long-term plan to prevent safety accidents.
Positive and effective safety culture is the cornerstone for enterprises to realize intrinsic safety. In order to successfully carry out the construction of enterprise safety culture, it is necessary to change the traditional enterprise safety concept and treat the safety management problems with a new perspective and thinking mode. Enterprises should regard the construction of safety culture as a successful ladder to ensure safe production, safeguard the safety and health of employees, and realize safe production and sustainable development, rather than face work that has to be carried out due to the provisions of national laws and regulations and the wide range of requirements of government regulatory departments at all levels. For those excellent enterprises led by visionary entrepreneurs, safety production and safety development have become the key success factors for enterprises to unite people’s hearts and develop and grow. The construction of safety culture not only does not hinder the realization of the enterprise’s operation benefit goal, but also is an important way for the enterprise to realize the sustainable development goal, and it is also an important magic weapon for the enterprise to increase the cohesion within the enterprise, increase the external influence and comprehensively enhance the competitiveness.
积极有效的安全文化是企业实现本质安全的基石。要顺利进行企业安全文化建设， 就必须转变传统的企业安全观念， 用新的视角和思维方式来看待安全管理问题。企业应该将安全文化建设看做是企业保障安全生产、维护职工安全与健康、实现安全生产和可持续发展的成功阶梯，而并非是由于国家法律法规的规定以及各级政府监管部门的要求才不得不进行的面子工作。对那些具有远见卓识的企业家所引领的优秀企业来说，安全生产和安全发展已经成为企业凝聚人心、发展壮大的关键成功要素。安全文化建设不仅不妨碍企业的经营效益目标的实现，而且是企业实现可持续发展目标的重要途径，又是企业内增凝聚力、外增影响力、全面提升竞争力的重要法宝。
At present, the problem of urban road traffic congestion has become a big problem in almost all large and medium-sized cities in China. With the rapid development of China’s economy, the new pattern of modern urban and rural integration has gradually formed. It has become a reality that every family has a car. The rapid development of urban construction and vehicle ownership not only makes the road traffic congestion in big cities in China, but also causes road congestion in some counties and even some small towns. So what is the root cause of this phenomenon? Is it urban planning, or urban road design, or other reasons? As well as with the change of national policy, the development direction of construction market has also changed significantly, and transportation engineering and municipal engineering have gradually taken the leading position. At the same time, the cost control of enterprises has penetrated into the whole construction process, which indicates that enterprises need more cost personnel. Therefore, it is an urgent problem to cultivate comprehensive cost personnel who understand both construction budget and highway and municipal engineering budget.
This book mainly introduces the problems related to urban road traffic design and cost control, hoping to play a role in attracting jade. It is expected that the defects in the design of urban road construction or reconstruction projects in China can be gradually improved in the near future, and make contributions to the smooth traffic of urban roads in China. There are also some imperfections in this book. Experts and readers are welcome to criticize them.
目前，城市道路交通拥堵问题已经成为我国几乎所有大中城市令政府头疼、百姓困扰的老大难问题。随着我国经济快速发展，城乡一体化的现代城乡新格局逐步形成，老百姓几乎每家都有汽车已经成为现实。这种城市建设和车辆拥有量的高速发展，不仅使得我国大城市的道路交通拥堵，而且连一些县城，甚至一些小镇都产生道路拥堵问题。 那么这种现象出现的根本原因是什么?是城市规划问题， 还是城市道路设计问题，或是其他原因。以及随着国家政策的改变，建筑市场的发展方向也有了重大转变，交通运输工程和市政工程逐渐取得主导地位。同时企业对成本控制已经深入到整个施工过程，这就预示着企业需要更多的造价人员。因此，培养既懂建筑预算又懂公路和市政工程预算的综合性造价人员是亟须解决的问题。
Fire is one of the most common disasters that seriously endangers human life and property and directly affects social development and stability. In recent years, with the development of social and economic construction, the number of high-rise buildings is increasing. High-rise and super-high-rise building fires are common all over the world. Although these buildings are generally equipped with more advanced fire-fighting facilities, once the fire happens, people are often unprepared. On June 14, 2017, a 20 storey residential building in the west of London broke out in the early hours of the morning. The fire spread rapidly, and the whole building was instantly submerged in a raging fire. The fire brought serious casualties and property losses, which shows the great harm of the fire.
Fire protection safety involves all walks of life and thousands of households, and is closely related to economic development, social stability and people’s living and working in peace and contentment. Only when the whole society popularizes safety regulations and scientific and technological knowledge, improves the safety awareness of the whole people, and enhances the prevention ability of the whole people, can the fire hazards be effectively prevented and reduced. Fire protection safety is a scientific, technical, mass and professional work. At the same time, it is necessary to coordinate and control the fire protection safety work of governments, organizations, enterprises and institutions. In addition to mastering the necessary knowledge of fire safety management, it is also necessary to learn and master the basic fire prevention and fire extinguishing technical knowledge such as fire combustion principle, fire risk category of materials and production technology, dangerous goods, production process, production equipment, electrical, building and fire-fighting facilities. Only by mastering these basic knowledge can we lay a foundation for the improvement of fire safety management quality and technical level, and provide specific methods and measures for solving practical problems in fire protection safety management.