Runaway investment in construction projects is a common phenomenon in the field of fixed investment in China. The construction project consumes a lot of labor, material and machine resources. It has a large investment, a long construction cycle and a strong comprehensiveness, which is related to the economic interests of all parties involved in the construction and has a significant impact on the national economy. At present, engineers and technicians often only pay attention to the quality control and progress control of the project in the field of engineering construction in China, ignoring the investment control of the construction project. Project cost management is a very important aspect of project management and one of the most important parts of project management science. Project cost management is a unique field of project management, which takes the project or construction project as the object, the cost determination and cost control as the main content, involves the technical and economic activities of the project, as well as the operation and management of the project.
Construction industry is one of the most important industries in China, which occupies a very important position in the macroeconomic structure. At present, China’s urbanization has entered a period of rapid development, also personal housing consumption is rising, and maintaining the price fluctuations in a reasonable range is an urgent task facing the government administration. In the future, the investment scale of real estate fixed assets will remain at a high level. The goal of project cost management is to use scientific management methods and advanced management means to reasonably determine the cost and effectively control the cost in accordance with the requirements of economic laws and the development trend of socialist market economy, so as to improve the investment efficiency and operation efficiency of construction enterprises. Through the project cost management control, we can improve the efficiency of capital use, improve the level of fixed asset management. And to some extent, we can curb the irrational growth of housing prices.
This book combines engineering cost and construction management, introduces engineering cost and cost management, cost valuation and index compilation, cost estimation and settlement, municipal engineering cost. It systematically expounds the theory of construction project cost, construction, technology, quality and safety management, providing theoretical guidance for construction project funds and project management. I hope more readers can read and give useful opinions.
建筑业是我国的重要产业之一，它在宏观经济结构中占据了十分重要的地位。我国目前城市化进入快速发展期，个人住宅消费不断上升，保持房价在合理区间波动，是我国政府管理部门当前面临的一个紧急又迫切的任务。未来房地产固定资产投资规模将继续维持在高位。工程造价管理，其目标就是按照经济规律的要求 , 根据社会主义市场经济的发展趋势，利用科学的管理方法和先进的管理手段，合理的确定造价，有效地控制造价，以提高投资效益和建筑企业的经营效益。通过工程造价管理控制，可以提高建设企业投入资本使用效率，提高固定资产管理水平，同时在一定程度上遏制房价非理性增长。
With the rapid development of China’s social economy, people pay more and more attention to the quality of life, and the requirements for the surrounding living environment are greatly improved. Under this background, new requirements and standards are put forward for China’s construction industry. The quality of construction project is the core content of the whole construction project. Strengthening the quality management of construction project can effectively improve the enterprise reputation and economic benefits of the construction unit, as well as effectively guarantee the life safety of the people. Therefore, this book is divided into six chapters to elaborate and analyze the construction and quality inspection in detail, with comprehensive contents. For the construction units of China’s construction projects, we must strengthen the management and control of the construction quality of the projects, and improve the existing problems, so as to effectively improve the construction quality of construction projects and effectively promote the further development of the construction industry in China.
Acupuncture is a clinical subject guided by the basic theory of traditional Chinesemedicine and based on the theory of meridians and acupoints, which uses acupuncture,moxibustion and other methods to stimulate certain parts of the human body and achieve the purpose of disease prevention and treatment. Acupuncture is an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. Because of its wide indications, obvious curative effect, convenient operation, economic safety and few side effects, it has been welcomed by the people for thousands of years and made great contribution to the prosperity of the Chinese nation.
The vitality of acupuncture lies in its clinical effect. In December 1979, the World Health Organization recommended 43 indications for acupuncture treatment to the world, which effectively promoted acupuncture to the world. However, this induction is not comprehensive. According to the latest research summary of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the diseases treated by acupuncture cover 16 kinds of disease spectrum, with a total of 461 diseases. For musculoskeletal and connective tissue system, nervous system, digestive system and urogenital system, eyes and appendages, mental and behavioral disorders, skin and subcutaneous tissue and other diseases, acupuncture treatment effect is particularly prominent. For a variety of refractory diseases, unexplained diseases, physical diseases and psychogenic diseases, acupuncture and moxibustion can become a powerful treatment and auxiliary treatment. At present, more than 140 countries and regions in the world are applying and studying acupuncture therapy to treat various diseases. There are more than hundreds of thousands of acupuncture practitioners around the world. As the pioneer of internationalization of traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture medicine is having a profound and extensive impact on the development of world medicine.
Although a lot of effort has been spent in the process of completing the book, due to the limitation of experience and ability, the writing of some chapters belongs to a new attempt, there are inevitably many omissions in the book. We sincerely ask fellow students and students to find out problems in reading and using the book and correct them, so as to improve their revision in the future.
针灸学是以中医基本理论为指导、经络腧穴理论为基础，运用针刺、艾灸及其他方法，刺激人体的一定部位，达到防治疾病目的的一门临床学科，针灸学是中医学的重要组成部分。因其具有适应症广、疗效明显、操作方便、经济安全、副作用少等优点，几千年来深受广大人民的欢迎，对中华民族的繁衍昌盛作出了重大的贡献。针灸的生命力在于临床疗效。 1979 年 12 月，世界卫生组织向全世界推荐了 43种针灸治疗的适应症，有力地推动了针灸走向世界。但是，这种归纳尚不全面。据天津中医药大学的最新研究总结， 针灸治疗的病种涵盖 16 类病谱、 共计 461 个病种之多。对于肌肉骨骼和结缔组织系统、神经系统、消化系统和泌尿生殖系统、眼和附器、精神和行为障碍、皮肤和皮下组织等疾病，针灸的治疗效果尤为突出。对于多种难治性疾病、原因不明性疾病、体质性疾病与心因性疾病，针灸可成为有力的治疗和辅助治疗手段。目前，世界上已有 140 多个国家和地区正在应用和研究针灸疗法治疗各种疾病，全世界针灸从业人员逾数十万，针灸医学作为中医药国际化的先锋，对世界医学的发展正产生着深远而广泛的影响。尽管在成书过程中费了不少心血，但由于经验与能力所限，有些章节的撰写又属于新的尝试，因此，书中难免存在诸多疏漏，恳请同道和同学们能够在阅读与使用本书时发现问题，予以指正，以便今后修改提高。
Metallurgical industry is the basic industry of national economy and an important symbol of national strength and industrial development level. It provides materials and products for machinery, energy, chemical industry, transportation, construction, aerospace, national defense and military industry and other fields. The development of modern industry, agriculture, national defense and science and technology constantly puts forward new requirements for metallurgical industry, and promotes the development of metallurgical discipline and engineering technology. On the other hand, the development of metallurgical engineering provides a new material basis for the progress of human civilization.
Metallurgical industry is a raw material industry that develops metal mineral resources and produces all kinds of metal products, which is closely related to the national economy and people's livelihood. In the production process of metallurgical enterprises, a large number of materials need to be processed. These materials have different physical and chemical states in the whole process. While smelting and extracting the main metal, a large number of “three wastes” (waste water, waste gas and waste residue) are produced. The discharge of these waste water, waste gas and waste residue will cause serious environmental pollution. How to reduce, recycle and make harmless these pollutants is one of the main tasks of metallurgical workers at present. Energy conservation and emission reduction is an important policy of the country. As an important part of the industrial system, metallurgical industry plays an important role in energy conservation and emission reduction. Metallurgical production process consumes a lot of energy and resources, but also produces a lot of pollutants. In order to realize energy conservation and emission reduction in metallurgical industry, advanced technology and equipment are the key points. It is of great significance to analyze energy consumption, pollutant emission and key energy conservation and emission reduction technologies in metallurgical industry.
In the process of writing this book, it has been greatly supported by many people and units, and the author would like to express heartfelt thanks. In addition, the compilation of this book also refers to the literature published at home and abroad, and the editor expresses sincere thanks to the relevant authors and publishers.
Due to the wide content of this book and the limited level of its editors, we sincerely hope that readers will give us valuable opinions.
冶金工业是一个以开发金属矿产资源、生产各类金属产品的原材料工业，与国计民生息息相关。冶金企业在生产过程中，需要处理大量的物料，这些物料在整个流程中具有不同的物理、化学状态，在冶炼提取主金属的同时，产生大量的“三废”（废水、废气、废渣）。这些废水、废气、废渣的排放将会造成严重的环境污染，如何将这些污染物实现减量化、 资源化、 无害化是当前冶金工作者的主要任务之一。节能减排工作是国家的重要政策，冶金工业作为工业系统重要的组成部分，其节能减排的重要性不言而喻。冶金生产过程消耗大量的能源和资源，同时也产生大量的污染物。要实现冶金工业的节能减排，先进技术与装备是重点，分析冶金工业的能源消耗、污染物排放和关键节能减排技术意义重大。
在本书的编写过程中， 得到了许多人和单位的大力支持， 在此表示衷心的感谢。此外，本书的编写还参考了国内外公开发表的文献资料，编者向有关作者和出版社一并表示诚挚的谢意。
Education is the foundation for a hundred years. The 21st century is the era ofknowledge economy. If China wants to catch up with the level of the world’smedium-sized developed countries in the middle of the 21st century, it must put education in the first place of development. We should adhere to the principle that education should serve the socialist modernization drive and the people, combine it with productive labor and social practice, and cultivate socialist builders and successors with all-round development of morality, intelligence, physical integrity and beauty. Training a large number of education management talents is an important task for all kinds of education departments in the 21st century. As an important part of national education system, preschool education is the beginning of lifelong education. The development of preschool education is of great significance to the promotion of children physical and mental health, the construction of a lifelong education system and the overall construction of a harmonious society. Therefore, improving the overall level of early childhood education is an important part of the national development strategy.
Up to now, more and more researches have revealed the importance of preschool education in the development process of human life, and the requirements of society for the quality of preschool education are increasing day by day. This undoubtedly puts forward higher requirements and expectations for preschool educators, especially preschool teachers. The key to improve the quality of preschool education is to build a high-quality team of preschool education teachers and constantly improve the professional quality of preschool education teachers. It is also the fundamental guarantee for the rapid development of preschool education in China. Facing the whole country and drawing on the advanced international educational management concepts, the book has made breakthroughs in human resources, environmental resources and scientific research management of preschool education. At the same time, on the one hand, it realizes the organic combination of various internal factors of preschool education, on the other hand, it integrates all external factors of preschool education, which makes the book expand from the internal to the external of preschool education management, forming an open system.
This book is applicable to preschool education institutions with different characteristics, and strives to organically combine the professional management of preschool education with the comprehensive management of preschool education, and organically combine the modern management theory with the practice of preschool education management. On this basis, it seeks the ways and methods of education management for all children.
Due to the tight time, heavy task and limited editor’s level, there are inevitably deficiencies and inadequacies in the book. We sincerely ask the readers to put forward valuable opinions in the use process. We will continue to work hard to make this book more mature and perfect, and do our best for the development of early childhood education in China.
百年大计，教育为本。 21 世纪是知识经济时代，中国要想在 21 世纪中叶赶上世界中等发达国家的水平，必须将教育置于发展的首要位置。坚持教育为社会主义现代化建设服务，为人民服务，与生产劳动和社会实践相结合，培养德智体美全面发展的社会主义建设者和接班人。 培养大批教育管理人才， 是 21 世纪各级各类教育部门共同担负的一个重要任务。学前教育作为国民教育体系的重要组成部分，是终生教育的开端。发展学前教育，对促进儿童身心健康，构建终身教育体系，全面建设和谐社会具有重要意义。因此，提高幼儿教育的整体水平是国家发展战略的重要组成部分。