Product development is the concrete embodiment of conception, planning, structural design and organization related to product formation. Generally speaking, it can be divided into product planning, product design, production preparation and sample test. Product design is the creative stage in the process of product development and the most important link in the process of product development. Its essence is a process of generating new knowledge based on existing knowledge.
Product design is the core competence of product R & D enterprises. The management and reuse of design knowledge can improve the efficiency and quality of product design. At present, the research on design knowledge focuses on design knowledge management, which mainly focuses on how to manage the accumulated design resources in the enterprise, as well as knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation and other technologies with knowledge as the core. However, the research on knowledge reuse mode and method is less, which is easy to cause the state of “managing without using” of design knowledge. The ultimate goal of product design knowledge management is not to manage design knowledge, but to reuse design knowledge and improve the efficiency and quality of product design process. The key factor to promote the development of product design process is designers. Only through the reuse of designers can design knowledge play its due role. Therefore, this book analyzes product design and management from nine chapters, and focuses on the key technology of providing design knowledge to designers, so as to realize the reuse of design knowledge.
With the continuous progress of computer technology, microelectronics technology, space technology, communication technology and information technology, surveying and mapping instruments and equipment are constantly updated, and profound changes have taken place in the field of surveying and mapping technology. From the collection, processing and management of data to the storage and output of data, we are constantly moving towards the direction of automation, digitization, integration and scientization. GPS technology, RS technology, GIS technology and digital mapping technology have been widely used in various fields of national economic construction. At present, the traditional surveying and mapping technology is still widely used, and the basic principle, basic method and basic operation process are basically unchanged. In the transformation period of new and old instruments, new and old methods and new and old surveying and mapping technology, the key means to improve efficiency is to keep up with the pace of technological development.
The development of modern surveying and mapping discipline requires that surveying and mapping workers should not only study and research in this discipline and the scope of this specialty, but also broaden the scope of professional knowledge, and more combine the theory and technology learning of other disciplines beyond this specialty and even other disciplines that seem not to be very relevant. In this regard, the first condition is to have a comprehensive and systematic understanding of the research content, theory, advanced technology and methods, discipline development and tasks of the discipline. Only by “accumulating widely and developing thinly” can we deeply study surveying and mapping technology and theory, innovate subject content and promote the development of surveying and mapping subject.
随着计算机技术、微电子技术、空间技术、通讯技术和信息技术的不断进步，测绘仪器设备不断更新换代，测绘技术领域也发生了深刻变化。从数据的采集、处理和管理，到数据的存储、输出，不断向自动化、数字化、集成化、科学化的方向迈进， GPS 技术、 RS 技术、 GIS 技术、数字化测绘技术已经广泛地应用于国民经济建设的各个领域之中。目前，传统的测绘技术仍被大量使用，基本原理、基本方法、基本操作过程大体未改变，在新老仪器、新老方法、新老测绘技术的转换时期，紧跟技术发展的步伐才是提升效益的关键手段。
The advancement of science and technology and the rapid development of the global economy have greatly improved the quality of life in human society, but also brought a series of problems that threaten human survival, such as water pollution, lack of water and environmental damage, which has aroused widespread concern in the fields of environment, ecology and sustainable development in the world. Protecting the global environment and implementing sustainable development have become the consensus of human society. As the most populous developing country, solving environmental problems is not only in line with China’s own long-term goals for sustainable development, but also an important manifestation of the common interests of human society.
The research content of this article includes the concept of water resources and its comprehensive development and utilization, the understanding, causes and prevention of flood disasters, measures for irrigation water and water intake methods, calculation of water consumption for urban water supply and knowledge of water sources, understanding of environmental concepts and classifications, main problems of the environment, content and tasks of environmental science, the relationship between environmental pollution and human health and the impact on human health, domestic and foreign measures and development history of environmental protection. Through the content of the article, readers can realize the importance and scarcity of water resources, the seriousness of environmental pollution and the harm caused by it, so as to let everyone increase the importance of nature, better protect the environment, and promote the harmony between people and the environment.
科学技术的进步和全球经济的迅猛发展，在极大地改善了人类社会生活质量的同时，也带来了水资源污染、缺失和环境破坏等一系列威胁人类生存的问题，从而引起了世界各国对环境、生态、可持续发展等领域的广泛关注。保护全球环境，实施可持续发展，已成为人类社会的共识。作为人口最多的发展中国家，解决好环境问题， 既符合中国自身可持续发展的长远目标， 也是人类社会共同利益的重要体现。
Human beings have entered the 21st century, and the process of economic globalization has been obviously accelerated. With China’s accession to WTO, China’s economy is gradually joining the tide of the world economy. With the rapid development of the world economy, the world is facing increasingly serious environmental problems. It is a very important task to maintain the harmony between human and nature and realize sustainable development. Among several fuels, natural gas is clean energy. Compared with coal and oil, natural gas not only emits the least amount of Sox, NOx and CO, but also emits the lowest amount of CO2 when obtaining the same amount of energy. Natural gas used as industrial, civil and vehicle fuel will significantly improve the air quality of cities. Increasing the proportion of natural gas in the energy consumption structure is an important measure to alleviate environmental degradation. Accelerating the development and utilization of natural gas has been widely recognized in the world.
As the main channel of natural gas transportation, pipeline is known as one of the five modes of transportation. Natural gas pipeline is widely used in urban development, energy supply, petrochemical infrastructure and people’s living conditions and other fields. In view of the strategic position of natural gas pipeline in the national economy, it is known as the “major lifeline of the country”. However, with the development of pipeline and the increase of transportation time, accidents such as pipeline leakage, perforation and explosion caused by initial defects of pipeline, corrosion and perforation during operation, third-party damage, misoperation, natural disasters and other factors occur from time to time, which cause great harm to people’s lives and properties, surrounding environment, social economy, enterprise production and people’s life. Therefore, it is of great significance to strengthen the integrity management of natural gas pipeline, improve the basic technology of inspection and detection, improve the means of safety assessment, and actively formulate and take measures to prevent accidents. In particular, the number of pipelines has increased dramatically. National key projects, such as the Second Project of Natural Gas Transmission from West to East China and Natural Gas Transmission from Sichuan to East China, have been completed and put into operation, driving the rapid development of downstream branch lines and buried natural gas pipelines in cities along the line. When it brings threat to urban safety, it will inevitably bring new challenges to the safety assessment and management of pipelines.
人类已进入 21 世纪，经济全球化的进程明显加快，随着中国加入 WTO，中国经济正在逐步加入世界经济的大潮之中。在世界经济迅猛发展的同时，全球面临着日益严重的环境问题，保持人和自然的和谐，实现可持续发展成为一项十分重要的任务。在几种燃料中，天然气是清洁能源，与煤、石油相比，天然气使用时不仅排放出的 SOx、 NOx 及 CO 量最少，而且获得等量能量时排放的 CO2 量也是最低的。天然气用作工业、民用及车用燃料将显著改善城市的大气质量，增加天然气在能源消费结构中的比例是缓解环境恶化的重要措施，加速开发和利用天然气在世界各国得到广泛的共识。
Railway is the integration of high and new technology and the symbol of human civilization and railway modernization. Since the 16th National People’s Congress (NPC) of the People’s Republic of China, with the attention of the Party and the State Council and the approval of “The Medium and Long Term Railway Network Plan” by the State Council in January 2004 as the symbol, China has set off a new round of large-scale and high standard railway construction climax. The scale of high-speed railway construction is unprecedented not only in China, but also in the world. During the 13th Five Year Plan period, China plans to start construction of 10000 km of high-speed railway, builds and puts into operation 11000 km, and increases the business mileage of high-speed railway to 30000 km. The great achievements in the development of high-speed railway in China play a decisive role in accelerating the realization of railway modernization, and make the position and role of railway in the “four comprehensive” strategic layout increasingly prominent. The arrival of “high-speed rail era” has brought many profound changes to the economy, society and people’s life, “high-speed rail economy” and “high-speed rail travel” are leading the trend of the times. In just 10 years, China has successfully changed from the world’s high-speed railway chaser to the leader, which has greatly improved the national image and national self-confidence, and made the high-speed railway a bright“national card”.
Project quality is the life of high-speed railway construction, and project quality management is the core of high-speed railway construction project management. In recent years, the most concern at home and abroad is how to firmly adhere to the quality policy of “innovation leading, bravely striving for the first class” under the situation of tight time, heavy task and high tension of construction resources, effectively ensure the construction quality of large-scale, high-standard high-speed railway, and successfully achieve the grand goal of “building the world-class high-speed railway”. Up to now, we can basically answer this major issue, that is, we have successfully walked out of a road to ensure the quality of high-speed railway construction projects by relying on the standardized management of construction projects, and one of the most important innovative achievements is to create and promote a high-speed railway construction project quality management system characterized by integration and standardization.
铁路是当今高新技术的集成， 是人类文明和铁路现代化的标志。 党的十六大以来，在党中央国务院的重视下，以 2004 年 1 月国务院批准《中长期铁路网规划》为标志，我国掀起了新一轮大规模、高标准铁路建设高潮， 高速铁路建设规模之大，不但在我国前所未有，而且在世界上亦无先例。“十三五”时期我国计划开工建设高速铁路 1万千米，建成投产 1.1 万千米，高速铁路营业里程增长到 3 万千米。我国高速铁路发展的巨大成就，对于加快实现铁路现代化起着决定性作用，使得铁路在“四个全面”战略布局中的地位和作用日益突显。 “高铁时代”的到来给经济社会和人民生活带来很多深刻的变化，“高铁经济”和“高铁出行”正在引领时代风潮，仅仅用了 10 年时间，我国成功地从世界高速铁路的追赶者转变为引领者，这一历史性跨越大大地提升了国家形象和民族自信，也让高速铁路成为亮丽的“国家名片”。