The fundamental purpose of project management is to meet or exceed the requirements and expectations of all parties concerned. Different stakeholders of the project have different requirements and expectations for the project. For example, the owner wants to obtain the maximum profit with the minimum investment, the contractor expects to obtain the maximum profit with the minimum cost and requires to expand employment and improve social benefits and etc. The fundamental purpose of project management is to maximize the project objectives and overall benefits, and to meet and even exceed these different requirements and expectations to the maximum extent.
The construction cost of construction project refers to the monetary form of the transfer value of the means of production consumed by the construction enterprise in the process of taking the project as the cost accounting object and the value created by the necessary labor of the workers. It is the sum of all production costs incurred in the construction of a project, including the amortization or rental cost of the main and auxiliary materials, components and parts, turnover materials, construction machinery shift or rental cost, wages and bonuses paid to the production workers, and all expenses incurred by the project management department (or branches, engineering offices) for organizing and managing the construction of the project.
The cost management of construction project is based on the overall goal of construction enterprises and specific requirements of the project. During the implementation of the project, the project cost is effectively controlled and other management activities, so as to achieve the purpose of strengthening the management, improving the cost management system, improving the cost accounting level, reducing the project cost and creating good economic benefits. Strengthening the cost management of engineering projects is the only way for construction enterprises to accumulate financial resources and enhance their competitiveness.
As a special commodity, the quality of construction products has always been concerned by people. With the development of the society and the progress of the times, people’s demand and expectation for the construction engineering are higher and higher. Therefore, the State formulates and modifies and improves the current codes, regulations and application standards from design to construction, building materials, project quality supervision and supervision, and various local and industry also formulates corresponding codes and specifications, which provides a reliable guarantee for standardizing construction market behavior and controlling project quality.
Construction quality and inspection is a very important work in project management, is the lifeline of construction enterprises, and is related to the survival and development of enterprises. This book fully responds to the call of “high quality development” of the country, adheres to the compilation principle of “clear goal, appropriate system, innovative content, concise and comprehensive”, and is compiled by organizing in-depth study and understanding of current specifications, procedures and standards on the basis of earnestly summarizing many years of engineering practice experience.
This book follows the development of the times, and it is close to the engineering practice. It strives to be fully based and concise. It summarizes problems in concise and popular language, and tries to avoid blindly piling up theoretical articles and simply quoting normative items. This book is written in combination with the standards, quality and safety analysis and prevention and control measures are carried out around the relevant standards; combined with the reform and development trend of the engineering construction industry, it enables readers to understand the new trend, new technology and new requirements of the quality and safety management of construction projects, and constantly broaden their knowledge.
In the process of compiling this book, we have referred to a large number of documents, and hereby we sincerely thank the relevant authors. The references are listed at the end of the book. Due to the limited level of editors and the rush of time, there are inevitably omissions and irregularities in the book. Readers are welcome to criticize and correct them.
Building engineering construction and quality and safety supervision are of vital importance to the development of enterprises. As the trend of economic globalization intensifies, the world economy gradually connected into a whole. The competitiveness of the world market gradually increases, and construction companies are also facing more intense competitive environment. If companies want to stand out from the competition, it must improve quality and efficiency, especially quality is a business card of the company, the quality of which will have a huge impact on the company.
This article makes a detailed study of construction quality and safety supervision from various perspectives. First, it explains the relevant infrastructure of construction engineering, and analyzes the main links involved in the foundation construction process such as pile foundation construction, foundation trench construction, foundation pit support construction, underground structure construction and so on. Furthermore, it analyzes the basic concepts and knowledge of construction engineering quality management, classifies and discusses effective quality control measures in the construction process; analyzes the safety production and management technology involved in the construction process, inspection and assessment of commonly used building materials, quality acceptance and damage assessment of housing construction engineering.
In recent years, data statistics show that in 20 industries of the national economy, the construction industry has always been among the top, accounting for 5.4% of China’s GDP. From the historical data, the added value of the construction industry has developed from 13.82 billion RMB in 1978 to 1013.4 billion RMB in 2005, with an average annual growth of 17%. It has become an important pillar industry in the national economy. In addition to the short-term fluctuation in the early 1990s, the added value of construction industry has maintained a share of about 5%-6% of GDP, and the position of pillar industry is very stable. In addition, the construction industry also creates about 30 billion dollars of foreign exchange income for the country every year, which is an important force in China’s foreign trade and economic cooperation. As a pillar industry, the position of the construction industry has been continuously strengthened. Due to its huge absorption of rural surplus labor, it has already become the key point to social and economic stability in the process of industrialization and urbanization in China. However, behind the rapid growth, due to the unscientific decision-making of engineering projects, unreasonable engineering design, and poor engineering management, the investment scale of many projects is out of control and the construction quality is not stable. There is a huge waste of investment. There are “uncompleted projects” and “three excess projects” in construction projects, which seriously affect the implementation of national plans and financial budgets, and interfere with the normal economic order in the field of engineering construction. The above facts show that there are problems in the current construction management of construction projects in China, especially the cost management mode which plays an important role in the project management, has been difficult to meet the need of the current project cost management. In a sense, defects in the theory and method of project cost management are the root of the endless problems in project management. There is an urgent need to establish a scientific and standardized management system and operation mechanism of engineering construction industry, as well as a scientific and standardized management system and operation mechanism of engineering cost.
This book deeply analyzes the construction technology of each process and each stage of the construction engineering, comprehensively interprets the progress, quality, safety, cost control and management of the construction industry, and discusses the cost budget of the construction combining with the project cost, so as to provide the theoretical basis for the technical support and management practice of the construction industry.
近几年，数据统计显示，在国民经济20 个行业中，建筑业始终名列前茅，占我国国内生产总值的5.4%。从历史数据看，建筑业增加值从1978 年的138.2 亿元发展到2005 年10134 亿元，年均增长17%，业已成为国民经济中重要的支柱产业。除了 90 年代初有短期的波动外，建筑施工业增加值在国内生产总值中一直保持着5%～6%左右的份额，支柱产业的地位十分稳固。此外，施工业还每年为国家创造300 亿美元左右的外汇收入，是我国对外贸易和经济合作的一支重要力量。作为支柱产业的建筑施工业，在我国工业化和城市化进程中，不仅地位不断增强，更因其对农村剩余劳动力巨大的吸纳作用，使其已成为社会经济稳定的关键。但在高速增长的背后，由于工程项目决策不科学，工程设计不合理，工程管理跟不上，而导致诸多工程的投资规模失控、施工质量不稳定，造成了投资的巨大浪费。在建设项目中普遍存在着“烂尾工程”和“三超工程”，严重影响国家计划、财政预算的执行，干扰工程建设领域的正常经济秩序。上述事实说明，我国现有建筑工程施工管理中存在问题，尤其是在工程管理中起重要作用的造价管理模式已经难以满足现阶段工程造价管理的需要了。从某种意义上讲，目前工程造价管理理论和方法上的缺陷是导致工程管理问题层出不穷的根源。现实迫切需要建立起我国科学规范的工程建筑业管理体制和运行机制，科学规范的工程造价管理体制和运行机制。
With the progress of the times and the rapid development of the social economy, the country has gradually become stronger, the research on electrical engineering has become more and more in-depth, the application of electrical automation and intelligence is more and more extensive, and the control and management of electrical systems and equipment are also more and more important. With the continuous development of electrical automation technology, there are more and more professional requirements for staff in the process of electrical equipment and system management. Employees in the electrical automation industry must learn and train more professionally and systematically to enrich the knowledge system and adapt to the progress and development of society. We must demand ourselves with higher standards, make our own contributions to the development of the entire electrical automation technology, and contribute to the construction of the
This article mainly starts with the general knowledge of electrical engineering and automation, and makes a comprehensive explanation of electrical engineering automation and the management of power equipment, including theoretical knowledge of electrical automation control; the extensive application in industry, power, aerospace and military in real life; contract control, quality management and control of power equipment supervision and manufacturing; establishment and requirements of management system for power equipment supervision and manufacturing. I hope that through reading and studying the relevant content of this book, I can help the staff at all levels in the electrical automation industry to a certain extent, and make our own contributions to further achieve the goal of changing the motherland from a “manufacturing country” to a “manufacturing power".