Energy is the cornerstone of the existence and development of human society and the basic condition of economic development and civilization progress. Coal is the main energy and important industrial raw materials in China, and is an important support for China’s rapid economic development. Since the reform and opening up, the coal industry has persisted in relying on scientific and technological progress, the scientific research system has become increasingly complete, and the innovation ability has been greatly improved, forming a large number of world-class innovation achievements. Some basic theories and key technologies are among the advanced ranks in the world. In many technical fields, they are changing from “follow runner” to “parallel runner” and “leader”. The overall level has achieved a leap from quantitative growth to qualitative improvement. The coal production has realized the transformation from primitive and backward mining to mechanized and intelligent mining, and the coal machinery equipment has realized the transformation from foreign introduction and imitation to independent research and development, invention and creation.
The existing conditions of coal resources in China determine that there are few resources suitable for opencast mining. The underground coal mine is the main body of coal production in China, and promoting the intelligent mining of underground coal mine is the key section of coal technology upgrading. Some large-scale coal enterprises in China, through the establishment of a scientific and technological innovation mechanism combining production, learning, research and application and joint research with scientific research institutions, colleges and universities and coal machinery equipment enterprises, have developed an intelligent production system of comprehensive mining complete equipment with independent intellectual property rights, put forward an intelligent mining production mode of “machine operation without human following, safety inspection by human doing”, realized the remote control of coal mining in the fully mechanized working face and the ground control center and led the development direction of coal science and technology in China. Huangling Mining Company of Shaanxi Coal Chemical Industry Group attaches great importance to the innovation and development of coal mining technology. In recent years, it has cooperated with Beijing Tiandi Mako Electro-hydraulic Control System Co., Ltd., Tiandi Technology Co., Ltd., Ningxia Tiandi Benniu Industry Group Co., Ltd. and Xi’an Coal Mining Machinery Co., Ltd., Shanxi Pingyang Heavy Industry Machinery Co., Ltd., China Coal Zhangjiakou Coal Mine Machinery Co., Ltd. and other technical research and equipment manufacturing companies, through hard working and joint research, firstly created the model of remote control mining mode of ground control center and realized the normalization of ground control mining of domestic complete set of comprehensive mining equipment. The successful practice of intelligent unmanned mining technology in Huangling Mining Company fills in the blank of coal intelligent mining technology in China, and promotes the intelligent unmanned mining technology to reach the international leading level. But we have to see that our intelligent unmanned mining technology is still in its infancy and there are many unsolved problems in skills, technology and management. We still need to continue to increase research and development efforts in sensing, monitoring, control, internet of things, etc. And we also need to improve the system, stability and coordination of intelligent mining technology, so as to promote the level of safe, efficiency and intelligent mining of coal to a higher level, and make new contributions to the transformation and upgrading of coal industry.
能源是人类社会存在和发展的基石，是经济发展和文明进步的基本条件。煤炭是我国主体能源和重要工业原料， 是中国经济快速发展的重要支撑。 改革开放以来，煤炭行业坚持依靠科技进步，科研体系日益完备，创新能力大幅度提高，形成了一大批世界一流的创新成果。一些基础理论和关键技术跻身世界先进行列，在很多技术领域正由“跟跑者”向“并行者”“领跑者”转变，整体水平实现了从量的增长向质的提升的跃升。煤炭生产实现了由原始落后的开采向机械化、智能化开采的转变，煤机装备实现了由国外引进、仿制，向自主研发、发明创造的转变。
China is in the stage of rapid economic development, and the total amount of resource consumption is growing rapidly. Therefore, we must establish and seriously implement the scientific outlook on development, adhere to the concept of sustainable development. For this reason, our government attaches great importance to resource conservation as a basic national policy, and puts forward the long-term strategic goal of building a resource-saving and environment-friendly society. Building is the main place for human beings to engage in all kinds of activities. Building activities not only have a huge impact on natural resources and environment, but also are the greatest energy areas for potential conservation. Therefore, it is the key area of energy conservation and emission reduction in China and promoting the sustainable development of society.
According to the current building situation in China, the total area of existing buildings is about 550×108 square meters, and the new building area of urban and rural areas in China is about 20×108 square meters every year. Due to the large building area base, the total building energy consumption is also large, which has been ranked in the forefront of the world, but in terms of unit building area energy consumption and per capita energy consumption level, China is still far below the level of developed countries. In this case, the green building of modern architecture comes into being from the perspective of energy conservation and ecological environment concern. It is the general concern of people for the global ecological environment and the extensive and in-depth thought of sustainable development. It is important for architecture to expand from the aspect of energy conservation to comprehensively examine the construction activities and the global ecological environment, the surrounding ecological environment and the living environment of residents architectural concept and practice. In this process, green building design directly affects the implementation of green building. In the process of design, whether it can save resources, protect the environment, reduce pollution to the maximum extent, provide people with healthy, applicable and efficient use space is directly related to whether it can create a harmonious symbiotic building with nature, and whether it can implement the sustainable development strategy of our country. Therefore, it is of great significance to pay attention to the green building design under the concept of sustainable development, which is also the original intention of this book.
In the process of writing this book, the author has referred to a large number of domestic and foreign literature about green building, and cited the research results of some experts and scholars. Here we express our sincere thanks. Due to the shortness of time and the limited level of the author, there are inevitably some omissions and inadequacies in the book. We also urge readers to put forward valuable opinions and suggestions, so as to better improve the book in the future.
从我国当前的建筑情况来看，现有建筑的总面积约为 550×108 m2，未来中国城乡每年新建建筑面积约 20×108 m2，由于建筑面积基数较大，建筑能耗总量也较大，已排在世界各国前列，但就单位建筑面积能耗和人均能耗水平而言，我国还远远低于发达国家水平。在这种情况下，从能源节约、生态环境关注等视角审视现代建筑的绿色建筑应运而生，它是人们对全球生态环境的普遍关注和可持续发展思想的广泛深入，是建筑从能源节约方面扩展到全面审视建筑活动与全球生态环境、周边生态环境和居住者所生活的环境的重要建筑理念和实践。在此过程中，绿色建筑设计直接影响绿色建筑的实施，在设计的过程中能否最大限度地节约资源、保护环境、减少污染，为人们提供健康、适用和高效的使用空间，直接关系能否创造出与自然和谐共生的建筑，能否落实我国的可持续发展战略。因此，关注可持续发展理念下的绿色建筑设计有着较强的时代意义，这也是本书撰写的初衷。
As a basic industry of national economy, mining industry plays an important role in the process of industrial construction and development. With the continuous development of mineral resources, the amount of shallow easy to mine resources is decreasing, and the proportion of underground mining is increasing. How to mine underground mineral resources safely and efficiently depends highly on the quality of mine design.Underground mine design is a complex, systematic and comprehensive planning and design of underground mining, with mining as the main body and other related professional knowledge. In order to adapt to the development of mining teaching and the needs of mining enterprises and design units, this book makes an attempt in this regard based on many years of work experience.
The book mainly introduces the conventional design method in content arrangement, focusing on the mine survey, mine lifting, drainage, mine ventilation and other related contents. In the process of compiling, the content system is comprehensive and the primary and secondary is appropriate, which provides basic design knowledge for beginners to analyze and solve the problem in underground mining design.
The content of this book is comprehensive, scientific, practical and learning. It can be used as a learning textbook for mining major in colleges and universities, as well as a learning reference for mining design personnel and mine technical management personnel.
Due to many leading cities of mine engineering technology involved, there are many places that need to be improved and developed, and some opinions in the book only represent the author’s personal ideas and opinions. If there is something wrong, the author sincerely hopes to get the reader’s correction, so that the book can be improved when it is revised.
采矿工业作为国民经济基础产业在工业建设与发展过程中占有重要地位。随着矿产资源的不断开发，浅部易采资源量不断减少，地下矿山开采的比重逐渐增加。如何安全、高效地开采地下矿产资源，在很大程度上取决于矿山设计的质量。地下矿山设计是以采矿专业为主体， 辅以其他相关专业知识， 对地下矿床开采进行复杂、系统、综合地规划与设计。为适应采矿专业教学工作的发展，以及矿山企业和设计单位的需要，基于多年的工作经验，本书作了这方面的尝试。
With the continuous development of economic globalization, the financial industry’s position in the international economy has become increasingly important, which has played a major role in promoting the social development of various countries and regions, and is also a sign of the level of economic development. In practice, financial development will have different impacts on international trade in different countries and at different stages of development. Through the corresponding financial system rules, the popularization and development level of the financial industry, the financial industry institutions, financial constraints and other factors, it influences the process and structure of international trade. Finance and trade are two important components of national economic activities, and they are also important channels for industrial exchanges and economic exchanges between various regions. With the continuous development of economic integration, the integration and interaction between finance and trade has also deepened. The increasing research on the relationship between financial development and trade in academia shows that finance and trade are being concerned and recognized by people from all walks of life.
Many studies have shown that there is an inextricable relationship between the development of finance and international trade. The development and practice of international trade can provide effective experience for the development of regional finance. In the process of international trade, both parties to the trade need to settle funds.
The transfer and settlement of these funds are in the financial scope. Summarizing and analyzing each trade activity process and experience can update traditional trade communication theories. Second, under the vigorous development of international trade, finance can also develop more freely. International trade is a free form of trade. For enterprises, the ultimate purpose of operation and production is to push products to various markets around the world, and the scope of financial services is relatively wide. In order to promote the development of trade, we must constantly reform and improve ourselves.
This article analyzes and narrates in detail from financial innovation and international trade, analyzes its basic knowledge and development issues, and looks forward to the future. I hope this book can provide some help for related work projects in China.
Construction industry is one of the basic, leading and pillar industries in China. Its healthy and stable operation is directly related to the coordinated and sustainable development of the national economy. With the development of China’s market economy for more than 30 years and reform deepening, the implementation of the housing commercialization policy in 1998, the acceleration of urbanization, the construction industry got the unprecedented development. However, many problems have also been exposed, especially the construction quality problems and frequent accidents, resulting in economic losses, casualties, and social impacts that cause people to reflect and worry. If a construction enterprise wants to survive, to develop, to grow, to succeed, and to mature, it can only rely on quality to win reputation, rely on reputation to build a brand, rely on the brand to expand the market, rely on the market to increase efficiency, rely on efficiency to seek development, and rely on development to achieve brilliant success.
Therefore, the quality of construction projects is undoubtedly the strategic focus of construction enterprises’ core competitiveness and the lifeline of survival and development.