Under the background of economic globalization and higher education internationalization, the financial work of colleges and universities is more and more important as the central work of personnel training, scientific research, social services and so on, and gradually moves from the edge of higher education management to the core of higher education management.
Financial management is one of the core parts in the management of colleges and universities. It not only undertakes the important task of raising and distributing funds for colleges and universities, but also manages the funds of colleges and universities, such as accounting, supervision and assessment, which has a direct impact on the connotation and extension construction and development of teaching and scientific research. At the end of the 20th century, after a large-scale enrollment expansion, China’s higher education has gradually achieved popularization. With the continuous expansion of the scale of running a university, the increasingly complex economic activities, the contradiction between the supply and demand of funds is more prominent, the source and application of funds are diversified, so the financial situation of the university is facing a more complex situation. It is of great significance for the stable development of colleges and universities, the construction of education and the cultivation of social talents to study the financial management of colleges and universities in China.
Under the development trend of market economy globalization, knowledge economy marketization and global economic integration, in order to better adapt to the needs of university running autonomy, diversified economic interests, complicated economic relations and refined financial management, and to further improve the needs of modern university management, the financial work in colleges and universities must focus on the reform and development of financial management, innovate the system, invigorate the mechanism, improve the system and standardize the management.
Due to the limited time and ability, although we have done our best in the process of writing this book, there are still some mistakes and improprieties in the book. Readers are welcome to criticize and correct them.
财务管理是高校管理工作中的核心部分之一，不仅承担着为高校筹集、分配资金的重要任务，同时还必须对高校资金进行核算、监督、考核等管理工作，其对教学科研内涵及外延建设和发展起着直接的影响。 在 20 世纪末经历了规模较大的扩招后，我国高等教育已逐步实现了大众化。随着高校办学规模的不断扩大，经济活动日益复杂，经费供求矛盾更加突出，资金来源与运用呈现多元化，因此高校财务面临着更加复杂的局面。研究我国高校财务管理问题，对高校稳定发展、对我国教育事业建设和社会人才培养都具有重要的意义。
In the field of microbiology, the development of molecular biology, molecular genetics and ecology has promoted the development of environmental microbiology. Many microbial application technologies have penetrated into the environmental protection work, and played an important role in improving human living environment and eliminating environmental pollution. Microorganism is the basic component of natural ecosystem, which is closely connected with material circulation and energy flow. It decomposes all kinds of organic matters in the environment, including all kinds of wastes and organic pollutants generated by human activities, maintains the relative balance of natural ecosystem while maintaining its growth and reproduction, and helps human beings“clean” the environment.
Environmental microbiology is a professional basic course for environmental protection majors. It provides students with the necessary basic theories and experimental skills of microorganisms for learning water pollution control engineering, air pollution control engineering, environmental monitoring, solid waste treatment and utilization and other professional courses. Higher vocational colleges train high skilled applied talents to meet the needs of production, service and management. For this purpose, the compilation of this textbook systematically introduces the basic knowledge of microbial morphology, structure, nutrition, metabolism, growth and reproduction, and genetic variation in accordance with the principles of “theoretical teaching sufficiency” and “practice, practicality and practice”. On the basis of meeting the needs of subsequent courses, some contents are adjusted and deleted. For example, the metabolism of microorganisms is only introduced the metabolism of production capacity. In the practical application of microorganisms, the influence of microorganisms on the environment, the role of microorganisms in the natural material circulation, and the application of microbial technology in environmental management are introduced. The experimental part includes the basic skills and operation methods of microorganisms, the detection of microorganisms in water and air, the separation, screening and cultivation of high efficient pollutant degradation strains.
Due to the limited level of editors, it is difficult to avoid the mistakes or omissions in the book. We sincerely ask our colleagues and readers to criticize and correct them.
In the development process of social economy and science and technology, the quality requirements of power engineering are increasingly strict. In order to meet this demand, China is also constantly transforming power engineering, improving the technical level of power engineering and the construction of power engineering projects. Only by improving the technical level and construction level of electric power engineering, and strengthening the construction and management of electric power safety, can we improve our competitiveness in the electric power engineering market. In addition, the Party and the government attach great importance to the safety work of electric power engineering and carry out a series of measures to bring the safety management of engineering construction into the track of legal construction. The electric power industry has established the safety supervision system of electric power engineering and safety production supervision system, and carried out special rectification in key areas and links prone to accidents.
This book is mainly divided into ten chapters to elaborate power engineering and power safety, hoping to contribute to the development and progress of China’s power engineering.
Geotechnical engineering is an important part of civil engineering and water conservancy engineering. It is an applied discipline which is based on the theory of geomechanics, rock mechanics and engineering geology, and uses various exploration and testing technologies to comprehensively renovate and utilize the rock and soil mass. It includes geotechnical engineering investigation, design, test, construction and monitoring, involving the whole process of civil engineering. Geotechnical engineering is a highly practical, imperfect and immature technology subject, which has great difficulty and potential. In practical projects, geotechnical problems are often main factors that affect the project investment and limit the construction period. If not handled properly, sometimes it will bring disastrous consequences. So far, the basic solution of geotechnical engineering problems is based on the engineering test, guided by the theory, conducted by the means of construction monitoring and adopts the method of constantly feedback and revising the design of construction scheme.
Due to the wide range of geotechnical engineering, its personality under different conditions is also very obvious. Although the countermeasures and methods to deal with new problems of geotechnical engineering change with each passing day and emerge in endlessly, its exploitable potential is still great. Due to its limited space, this book must focus on “highlighting the theme, setting up the structure, focusing on the thinking, studying the law, pointing out the direction, and promoting the deepening”. It does not seek for the whole, but for the precise method, focusing on the thinking method, theoretical basis, basic principles and typical analysis of understanding, analyzing and solving problems. It does not want to replace and cannot replace the important role of a large number of existing materials and documents, but only wants to provide necessary help for better utilization and understanding of the existing large amount of materials and creation of new materials; it does not want to copy the related mathematical mechanics derivation, data charts and construction machines and methods in the existing materials and documents, but tries to make them get their own place, complement each other and cooperate with each other. As for references, in addition to selecting some representative works in various fields, this book mainly includes some new references that the editor has contacted and quoted. A large number of other existing documents can be obtained from relevant works. In addition, the establishment of the book system and the analysis, classification or evaluation of some problems naturally reflect the author’s own understanding, experience and views. It can only be regarded as a kind of opinion in “hundred schools of thought contend”, so as to create a loose atmosphere and environment for academic criticism and in-depth discussion.
Due to the limited level of the author, there are inevitably mistakes and improprieties in the book. Readers are welcome to criticize and correct them.
由于岩土工程的涉及面十分广阔，它不同条件下的个性也十分明显。虽然处理岩土工程新问题的对策和方法日新月异，层出不穷，但它的可开发潜力仍然很大。本书因篇幅有限，必须在“突出主题，搭好结构，着重思路，研究规律，指明方向，推动深化”上下工夫，不求全求多，但求精求法，注重于认识问题、分析问题和解决问题的思维方法、理论依据、基本原则与典型剖析。它不想替代、也无法替代已有大量资料文献的重要作用，只想尽量为更好地利用与理解现有大量资料和创造新的资料提供必要的帮助； 它也不想大篇地抄录已有资料文献中有关的数学力学推导、数据图表和施工的机具与方法步骤，而是努力使它们各得其所，互相补充，彼此配合。关于参考文献，本书除选择各领域内一些具有代表性的著作外，主要包括编者接触到和引用到的一些新文献。 其他大量已有的文献可以从各有关著作得到。此外，本书体系的建立和对一些问题的分析、 分类或评价， 自然反映了编著者自己的认识、体会与观点。它只可视为“百家争鸣”中的一种见解，以便为学术批评与深入探讨创造一种宽松的气氛与环境。
There are all kinds of problems in modern cities, such as the change of population, the expansion of regions, the increase of cars, and the traffic problems such as traffic jams, environmental degradation, public traffic congestion and recession. Urban traffic problem is a vexing problem for cities all over the world. How to solve it fundamentally has been the research focus of experts and scholars for many years. Urban society has four elements:
residence, work, recreation and transportation. With the development of the city, the expansion of the scale of the city and the specialization of the living, working and recreational areas in the city, the traffic demand of the city is constantly expanding. Urban structure determines the occurrence of traffic demand, and the form of land use determines the intensity of traffic. The relationship between the supply of urban traffic infrastructure and traffic demand should be balanced. When the supply cannot meet the demand, the traffic problem will appear.
The characteristics of urban road traffic in China are mixed, low-speed and high-density, one of which is traffic congestion; the characteristics of urban public traffic are traffic congestion and low service level. At present, the problem of urban road traffic congestion not only spreads rapidly in big cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen, but also develops to small and medium-sized cities. The source of urban traffic problems lies in the deficiency of “pre planning”, such as the lack of scientific urban planning and urban traffic planning, the lack of accurate grasp of urban traffic development strategy, the lack of strategic thinking, the lack of systematic methods, the lack of strict compliance and implementation of planning.
We hope that the publication of this book can play a positive role in promoting the teaching and discipline development of urban planning higher education, bringing rich and valuable materials to teachers and students of urban planning and architecture, and also bringing beneficial help to urban planners and practitioners of related majors.
Due to the limitation of the editor’s ability and level, there are inevitably deficiencies or mistakes in the book. We sincerely hope readers to criticize and correct it.