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Under the background of economic globalization and higher education internationalization, the financial work of colleges and universities is more and more important as the central work of personnel training, scientific research, social services and so on, and gradually moves from the edge of higher education management to the core of higher education management.
     Financial management is one of the core parts in the management of colleges and universities. It not only undertakes the important task of raising and distributing funds for colleges and universities, but also manages the funds of colleges and universities, such as accounting, supervision and assessment, which has a direct impact on the connotation and extension construction and development of teaching and scientific research. At the end of the 20th century, after a large-scale enrollment expansion, China’s higher education has gradually achieved popularization. With the continuous expansion of the scale of running a university, the increasingly complex economic activities, the contradiction between the supply and demand of funds is more prominent, the source and application of funds are diversified, so the financial situation of the university is facing a more complex situation. It is of great significance for the stable development of colleges and universities, the construction of education and the cultivation of social talents to study the financial management of colleges and universities in China.
     Under the development trend of market economy globalization, knowledge economy marketization and global economic integration, in order to better adapt to the needs of university running autonomy, diversified economic interests, complicated economic relations and refined financial management, and to further improve the needs of modern university management, the financial work in colleges and universities must focus on the reform and development of financial management, innovate the system, invigorate the mechanism, improve the system and standardize the management.
      Due to the limited time and ability, although we have done our best in the process of writing this book, there are still some mistakes and improprieties in the book. Readers are welcome to criticize and correct them.


前 言

在经济全球化、高等教育国际化背景下,高校的财务工作与人才培养、科学研究、社会服务等各项中心工作一样,其地位和作用越来越重要,并从高等教育管理的边缘逐渐走向高等教育管理的核心。

财务管理是高校管理工作中的核心部分之一,不仅承担着为高校筹集、分配资金的重要任务,同时还必须对高校资金进行核算、监督、考核等管理工作,其对教学科研内涵及外延建设和发展起着直接的影响。 在 20 世纪末经历了规模较大的扩招后,我国高等教育已逐步实现了大众化。随着高校办学规模的不断扩大,经济活动日益复杂,经费供求矛盾更加突出,资金来源与运用呈现多元化,因此高校财务面临着更加复杂的局面。研究我国高校财务管理问题,对高校稳定发展、对我国教育事业建设和社会人才培养都具有重要的意义。
  在市场经济全球化、知识经济市场化和全球经济一体化的发展趋势下,为更好地适应我国高校办学自主化、经济利益多元化、经济关系复杂化、财务管理精细化的需要,为进一步完善现代高校治理的需要,高校财务工作必须紧紧围绕财务管理改革与发展这一中心,创新体制,搞活机制,完善制度,规范管理。
  由于时间和能力有限,我们在本书的撰写过程中虽已尽心尽力,但书中难免存在错误和不当之处,敬请广大读者批评指正。

ISBN: 978-981-14-6160-6 Date of Publication: 2020
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In the field of microbiology, the development of molecular biology, molecular genetics and ecology has promoted the development of environmental microbiology. Many microbial application technologies have penetrated into the environmental protection work, and played an important role in improving human living environment and eliminating environmental pollution. Microorganism is the basic component of natural ecosystem, which is closely connected with material circulation and energy flow. It decomposes all kinds of organic matters in the environment, including all kinds of wastes and organic pollutants generated by human activities, maintains the relative balance of natural ecosystem while maintaining its growth and reproduction, and helps human beings“clean” the environment.
   Environmental microbiology is a professional basic course for environmental protection majors. It provides students with the necessary basic theories and experimental skills of microorganisms for learning water pollution control engineering, air pollution control engineering, environmental monitoring, solid waste treatment and utilization and other professional courses. Higher vocational colleges train high skilled applied talents to meet the needs of production, service and management. For this purpose, the compilation of this textbook systematically introduces the basic knowledge of microbial morphology, structure, nutrition, metabolism, growth and reproduction, and genetic variation in accordance with the principles of “theoretical teaching sufficiency” and “practice, practicality and practice”. On the basis of meeting the needs of subsequent courses, some contents are adjusted and deleted. For example, the metabolism of microorganisms is only introduced the metabolism of production capacity. In the practical application of microorganisms, the influence of microorganisms on the environment, the role of microorganisms in the natural material circulation, and the application of microbial technology in environmental management are introduced. The experimental part includes the basic skills and operation methods of microorganisms, the detection of microorganisms in water and air, the separation, screening and cultivation of high efficient pollutant degradation strains.
    Due to the limited level of editors, it is difficult to avoid the mistakes or omissions in the book. We sincerely ask our colleagues and readers to criticize and correct them.


前 言

在微生物学领域里,由于分子生物学、分子遗传学以及生态学的发展,促进了环境微生物学的发展,许多微生物应用技术渗透到环境保护工作中,为改善人类的生存环境和消除环境污染起到了重要作用。微生物是自然生态系统中的基本成分,物质循环和能量流动与之紧密相连,它通过分解环境中的各种有机物,其中包括人类活动产生的各类废弃物和有机污染物,在维持自身生长繁殖的同时,也维持了自然生态系统的相对平衡,帮助人类“清洁”环境。
  环境微生物学是环境保护类专业的专业基础课,它为学生学习水污染控制工程、大气污染控制工程、环境监测、固体废弃物处理与利用等专业课程提供了必需的微生物基本理论和实验技能。高职高专培养的是适应生产、服务、管理第一线需要的高技能应用型人才,以此为目标,本教材的编写按照“理论教学够用为度”及“实际、实用、实践”的原则,比较系统地介绍了微生物形态、构造、营养、代谢、生长繁殖及遗传异等基础知识,在满足后续课程需要的基础上,对部分内容做了调整和删减,例如,微生物代谢部分只介绍了产能代谢。在微生物的实际应用方面,介绍了微生物对环境产生的影响,微生物在自然界物质循环中的作用,微生物技术环境治理中的应用等内容。实验部分包括微生物的基本技能和操作方法,水中、空气中微生物的检测,污染物高效降解菌株的分离、筛选、培养等实验。
  由于编者水平有限,书中不妥或错漏之处难以避免,恳请广大同仁、读者批评指正。

ISBN: 978-981-14-6136-1 Date of Publication: 2020
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In the development process of social economy and science and technology, the quality requirements of power engineering are increasingly strict. In order to meet this demand, China is also constantly transforming power engineering, improving the technical level of power engineering and the construction of power engineering projects. Only by improving the technical level and construction level of electric power engineering, and strengthening the construction and management of electric power safety, can we improve our competitiveness in the electric power engineering market. In addition, the Party and the government attach great importance to the safety work of electric power engineering and carry out a series of measures to bring the safety management of engineering construction into the track of legal construction. The electric power industry has established the safety supervision system of electric power engineering and safety production supervision system, and carried out special rectification in key areas and links prone to accidents.
    This book is mainly divided into ten chapters to elaborate power engineering and power safety, hoping to contribute to the development and progress of China’s power engineering.


前 言

在社会经济和科学技术的发展过程中,对电力工程的质量要求也日趋严格,为了满足这种需要,我国也在不断改造电力工程,提高电力工程技术水平和电力工程项目的建设,只有在提高电力工程的技术水平和建设水平的同时,加强电力安全建设和管理,才能在电力工程市场提升自身的竞争力。除此之外,党和政府非常重视电力工程的安全工作,并推行一系列举措,将工程建设的安全管理纳入法制化建设的轨道。电力行业建立了电力工程安全监察体系和安全生产监管体系,针对易发事故的重点领域和环节开展专项整治。
  本书主要分十章内容对电力工程及电力安全进行详细的阐述,希望有助于我国电力工程事业的发展与进步。 

ISBN: 978-981-14-6123-1 Date of Publication: 2020
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Geotechnical engineering is an important part of civil engineering and water conservancy engineering. It is an applied discipline which is based on the theory of geomechanics, rock mechanics and engineering geology, and uses various exploration and testing technologies to comprehensively renovate and utilize the rock and soil mass. It includes geotechnical engineering investigation, design, test, construction and monitoring, involving the whole process of civil engineering. Geotechnical engineering is a highly practical, imperfect and immature technology subject, which has great difficulty and potential. In practical projects, geotechnical problems are often main factors that affect the project investment and limit the construction period. If not handled properly, sometimes it will bring disastrous consequences. So far, the basic solution of geotechnical engineering problems is based on the engineering test, guided by the theory, conducted by the means of construction monitoring and adopts the method of constantly feedback and revising the design of construction scheme.
    Due to the wide range of geotechnical engineering, its personality under different conditions is also very obvious. Although the countermeasures and methods to deal with new problems of geotechnical engineering change with each passing day and emerge in endlessly, its exploitable potential is still great. Due to its limited space, this book must focus on “highlighting the theme, setting up the structure, focusing on the thinking, studying the law, pointing out the direction, and promoting the deepening”. It does not seek for the whole, but for the precise method, focusing on the thinking method, theoretical basis, basic principles and typical analysis of understanding, analyzing and solving problems. It does not want to replace and cannot replace the important role of a large number of existing materials and documents, but only wants to provide necessary help for better utilization and understanding of the existing large amount of materials and creation of new materials; it does not want to copy the related mathematical mechanics derivation, data charts and construction machines and methods in the existing materials and documents, but tries to make them get their own place, complement each other and cooperate with each other. As for references, in addition to selecting some representative works in various fields, this book mainly includes some new references that the editor has contacted and quoted. A large number of other existing documents can be obtained from relevant works. In addition, the establishment of the book system and the analysis, classification or evaluation of some problems naturally reflect the author’s own understanding, experience and views. It can only be regarded as a kind of opinion in “hundred schools of thought contend”, so as to create a loose atmosphere and environment for academic criticism and in-depth discussion.
    Due to the limited level of the author, there are inevitably mistakes and improprieties in the book. Readers are welcome to criticize and correct them.


前 言

岩土工程是土木、水利工程中的一个重要组成部分,是一门以土力学岩体力学及工程地质为理论基础,运用各种勘探测试技术对岩土体进行综合整治改造和利用而进行系统性工作的应用学科,它包括岩土工程勘察、设计、试验、施工和监测,涉及土建工程的全过程。岩土工程是一门实践性很强、至今尚属不够完善、不够成熟技术学科,其难度大,潜力也很大。在实际工程中,岩土问题往往是影响工程投资和制约工期的主要因素,如果处理不当,有时会带来灾难性的后果。到目前为止,解决岩土工程问题还是基本遵循以工程试验为基础,以理论为指导,以施工监控为手段,不断反馈和修正设计施工方案的方法。
     由于岩土工程的涉及面十分广阔,它不同条件下的个性也十分明显。虽然处理岩土工程新问题的对策和方法日新月异,层出不穷,但它的可开发潜力仍然很大。本书因篇幅有限,必须在“突出主题,搭好结构,着重思路,研究规律,指明方向,推动深化”上下工夫,不求全求多,但求精求法,注重于认识问题、分析问题和解决问题的思维方法、理论依据、基本原则与典型剖析。它不想替代、也无法替代已有大量资料文献的重要作用,只想尽量为更好地利用与理解现有大量资料和创造新的资料提供必要的帮助; 它也不想大篇地抄录已有资料文献中有关的数学力学推导、数据图表和施工的机具与方法步骤,而是努力使它们各得其所,互相补充,彼此配合。关于参考文献,本书除选择各领域内一些具有代表性的著作外,主要包括编者接触到和引用到的一些新文献。 其他大量已有的文献可以从各有关著作得到。此外,本书体系的建立和对一些问题的分析、 分类或评价, 自然反映了编著者自己的认识、体会与观点。它只可视为“百家争鸣”中的一种见解,以便为学术批评与深入探讨创造一种宽松的气氛与环境。

   由于作者水平有限,书中难免有错误和不当之处,敬请读者批评指正。

ISBN: 978-981-14-6154-5 Date of Publication: 2020
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There are all kinds of problems in modern cities, such as the change of population, the expansion of regions, the increase of cars, and the traffic problems such as traffic jams, environmental degradation, public traffic congestion and recession. Urban traffic problem is a vexing problem for cities all over the world. How to solve it fundamentally has been the research focus of experts and scholars for many years. Urban society has four elements:
residence, work, recreation and transportation. With the development of the city, the expansion of the scale of the city and the specialization of the living, working and recreational areas in the city, the traffic demand of the city is constantly expanding. Urban structure determines the occurrence of traffic demand, and the form of land use determines the intensity of traffic. The relationship between the supply of urban traffic infrastructure and traffic demand should be balanced. When the supply cannot meet the demand, the traffic problem will appear.
   The characteristics of urban road traffic in China are mixed, low-speed and high-density, one of which is traffic congestion; the characteristics of urban public traffic are traffic congestion and low service level. At present, the problem of urban road traffic congestion not only spreads rapidly in big cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen, but also develops to small and medium-sized cities. The source of urban traffic problems lies in the deficiency of “pre planning”, such as the lack of scientific urban planning and urban traffic planning, the lack of accurate grasp of urban traffic development strategy, the lack of strategic thinking, the lack of systematic methods, the lack of strict compliance and implementation of planning.
We hope that the publication of this book can play a positive role in promoting the teaching and discipline development of urban planning higher education, bringing rich and valuable materials to teachers and students of urban planning and architecture, and also bringing beneficial help to urban planners and practitioners of related majors.
   Due to the limitation of the editor’s ability and level, there are inevitably deficiencies or mistakes in the book. We sincerely hope readers to criticize and correct it.


前 言

现代城市中普遍存在着各种各样的问题,诸如人口的变动、区域的扩大、汽车的增加,以及由此带来的交通堵塞、环境恶化、公共交通方式的拥挤以及衰退等交通问题。城市交通问题是世界各国城市共存的一个令人烦恼的问题,如何从根本上解决,多年来一直是专家学者们的研究重点。城市社会具有居住、工作、游憩和交通四个要素,随着城市的发展,城市规模的扩大,城市中居住、工作、游憩区域的特定化,使城市的交通需求不断扩大。城市结构决定了交通需求的发生,土地利用的形态决定了交通发生的强度。城市交通基础设施的供给与交通需求应该保持平衡的关系,当供给无法满足需求时,交通问题就显现出来了。
  我国城市道路交通的特点是混合、低速、高密度,特征之一是交通拥堵;城市公共交通的特点是车内拥挤、服务水平低。目前,城市道路交通拥堵问题不仅在以北京、上海、广州和深圳等为代表的大城市快速蔓延,而且发展到了中小城市。城市交通问题产生的源头在于“预”的不足,缺乏科学的城市规划和城市交通规划,缺乏对城市交通发展战略的准确把握,缺乏战略性思维,缺乏系统性方法,缺乏对规划的严格遵守和实施。
  希望这本书的出版能够为城市规划高等教育的教学及学科发展起到积极地推进作用,为城市规划专业及建筑学专业的师生带来丰富的有价值的资料,同时还能为城市规划师及其相关专业的从业者带来有益的帮助。
  由于编者能力和水平所限,书中难免存在不足或错误,恳请读者批评指正。

ISBN: 978-981-14-6159-0 Date of Publication: 2020
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