Architecture is the main place for human beings to engage in various activities. Population increase, resource shortage, environmental pollution and ecological damage are closely related to human construction activities. As a response to environmental problems, green building has become the mainstream and direction of world architecture
research and development, and has been promoted in many developed countries. In China, the concept of green building began to be familiar to people, and the theoretical research and design practice of green building has become a hot spot in the industry.
Green building has attracted great attention of the Chinese government, which also indicates that China’s construction industry has ushered in a new era of green building. Green building industry is very large, from the research and development and production of green building materials, the development and application of green building technology, the implementation of green building projects to the operation and management of a series of processes derived a large number of management problems. These management problems are not only brand-new but also urgent to be solved for the majority of project builders.
Green building technology is an interdisciplinary, cross industry, comprehensive and applied technology. This book combs the basic concept of green building, and analyzes the design, construction and management technology of green building. Combined with the green building related laws and regulations and evaluation system, it plays a positive role in promoting the overall promotion of green construction in China.
Due to the lack of time and the limited level of the editor, there are inevitably some shortcomings. At the time of publication of this book, we sincerely hope that readers can put forward valuable opinions and suggestions for this book.
Since the first use of ether in clinical anesthesia in the mid-19th century, anesthesiology has undergone 160 years of development. Modern anesthesiology has become a comprehensive clinical subject based on physiology, pathophysiology and pharmacology. Its scope covers clinical anesthesia, emergency resuscitation, severe monitoring and pain treatment and other aspects.In terms of clinical anesthesia, although the anesthesia operation is similar, the operation can involve brain, chest, abdominal cavity and other important organs. More importantly, the operation patients may also be complicated with hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes and other organ system diseases, so almost no case of anesthesia treatment is completely the same. Therefore, anesthesiologists should not only be proficient in the theory and technology of clinical anesthesia and monitoring, but also fully understand the physiological, pathological changes and disturbances of surgical patients, as well as the interaction among the three under different conditions. Only in this way can we cope with the ever-changing clinical situation and regulate the internal environment and nuanced links of perioperative patients.
In recent years, anesthesiology has made rapid development in China, including clinical anesthesia, treatment of critically ill patients and pain treatment. This puts forward higher requirements for clinical anesthesiologists. Anesthesiologists should not only be proficient in the theory and technology of clinical anesthesia and monitoring, and fully grasp the properties and efficacy of various anesthetics, but also have a full understanding of the physiological state, pathological changes and various effects of surgery on patients.
Anesthesia is a variety of methods to eliminate pain in order to ensure the safety of patients and create good surgical conditions during operation or diagnostic examination. It is also used to control pain. With the rapid development of science and technology, anesthesiology has undergone profound changes in clinical anesthesia, first aid and resuscitation, severe monitoring and pain treatment. The research progress of physiology, pharmacology, pathology, surgery and molecular biology has enriched the theory of anesthesiology and promoted the progress of anesthesia technology.
自 19 世纪中叶首次将乙醚用于临床麻醉以来，麻醉学已经历了 160 年的发展，现代麻醉学已成为一门以生理、病理生理、药理为基础的综合性临床学科，其范畴涵盖临床麻醉、急救复苏、重症监测以及疼痛治疗等诸多方面。仅就临床麻醉而言，虽然麻醉操作大同小异，但手术可涉及颅脑、心胸、腹腔等重要器官，更为重要的是手术病人还可能合并高血压、冠心病、糖尿病等各个器官系统的疾病，因此几乎没有 1 例麻醉的处理完全相同。这就要求麻醉科医师不仅精通临床麻醉及监测的理论和技术，更要充分理解手术病人的生理、病理变化及扰乱，以及不同病情下手术麻醉三者的交互影响。唯此才能应对千变万化的临床情况，才能调控围术期病人的内环境及细致入微的各个环节。
For a long time, the helplessness felt by the engineering and technical personnel in the front line of broadcasting technology and the ones who have just graduated from schools can be easily perceived. Facing the complex broadcasting system, they try to integrate into the broadcasting industry as soon as possible but in most cases, they don’t know how to achieve it. Without an effective, comprehensive and systematic guide book, they can only integrate into the industry by relying on their knowledge learned before and groping and re-studying by themselves. This procedure always takes a long time, ranging from three years to ten years, or even longer. Besides, the engineering personnel who engage in the specific part of broadcasting system always feel the difficulty of grasping the relative knowledge from the system level because of the limitation of their business. This also cause the waste of time, manpower cost and national resources.
Entering the 21 centuries, China will speed up the implementation of the “smart radio and television” strategy, whose main purpose is to create the smart media and new smart kinetic energy and strengthen the ability of sustainable development. At present, China is striving to promote integration and innovation in ideas, contents, genres, forms, methods, means, formats, systems and mechanisms in order to form new thinking concepts, new technical means, and new systems and mechanisms that meet the requirements of the new development concept.
China also requires the radio, television and other media to make great efforts to strengthen the construction of their international communication capacity. With rich information, distinct Chinese perspective and broad world vision, the media will publicize and explain China’s roads, China’s theories and China’s institutions to the international community and show the good image of China as a builder of world peace, a contributor to global development and a defender of international order. Besides, the radio and television are required to give a good narration of Chinese story and a wide spread of Chinese voice, work hard on “the Belt and Road Initiatives”, consolidate the mainstream of Africa, open up Latin American market, stabilize the neighboring countries, enhance the influence on Europe and America and make further efforts to serve the national strategy.
进入 21 世纪， 国家将加快实施“智慧广电” 战略， 其主旨在于打造智慧融媒体，创造智慧新动能，增强持续发展能力。目前，国家正着力推动融合创新，创新理念、内容、体裁、形式、方法、手段、业态、体制、机制，形成符合新发展理念要求的新思维观念、新技术手段、新体制机制。
With the continuous development of economy, public construction infrastructure projects are also constantly improving. In this regard, highway engineering construction is the most fundamental infrastructure construction. In highway construction, a large amount of land is needed, and a large amount of funds are needed. At the same time, a large amount of land will be reclaimed. However, it requires strengthening the design work in the early stage of highway construction to make better use of land. At the same time, highway as an important infrastructure of social and economic development, with the concept of green development proposed, the construction of green highway has become the trend. At present, China’s highway construction is basically in accordance with the mode of “low consumption, low emission, low pollution, high efficiency, high efficiency and high efficiency”. Energy saving and emission reduction, ecological and environmental protection technologies have been applied in the construction, management systems have been established, and publicity and training work has been carried out.
This book will be on highway safety design, highway landscape design based on traffic safety, ecological highway design concept and implementation, ecological highway slope restoration, green highway construction, green highway management evaluation of sustainable development concept, etc.
随着经济的不断发展，公共建设基础工程也在不断地提高，对此，公路工程建设是最根本的基础建设，而在公路建设中则需要大量的土地，需要大量的资金，在建设的同时会开垦大量的土地，然而如何能够更好地利用土地，这就需要加强公路建设前期的设计工作。同时，公路作为社会经济发展的重要基础设施，伴随着绿色发展概念的提出， 建设绿色公路已是潮流所趋。 目前， 我国公路建设基本上按照“低消耗、低排放、低污染，高效能、高效率、高效益”的模式建设，已经在建设中应用节能减排，生态环保技术，建立了管理制度，开展了宣传培训工作。
Roads, bridges, water conservancy, industrial and civil buildings are all civil engineering. Civil engineering construction is the basic construction of national economy, which plays an important role in the development of national economy.
The project construction includes several stages of survey, planning, design and construction. Among them, the construction stage is the stage of turning the design into a real object, which is a very important stage of engineering construction management. Our country adopts the contract system. In order to complete the project tasks and obtain more profits according to the construction period, quality and cost stipulated in the contract, the contractor must carry out effective construction management in addition to relying on skilled construction team and advanced construction equipment. Management can not replace technology, but management is technology management, so we should attach great importance to management.
The mechanization of highway and bridge engineering construction refers to that in the construction process of the whole project, the mechanical equipment and machines and tools used in each process are integrated and connected in sequence according to the construction process, and the construction is reasonably organized, so as to seek the fastest progress of the project, the best quality, the best mechanical performance and function, so as to achieve the highest economic and social benefits of the project. The quality of the project not only reflects the level of technical equipment, but also reflects the quality of construction personnel. In the past, the management cadres and operators in our technical team did not understand the machinery, and those who engaged in machinery did not understand the project, which brought difficulties to the construction mechanization, and even affected the progress and quality of the project. This situation needs to be reversed, so we must pay attention to the training of construction management personnel, technical personnel and operators as soon as possible in the construction, so that the designers, constructors, executors and operators of mechanized construction can cooperate scientifically.
公路和桥梁工程施工机械化是指在整个工程项目的施工过程中，按照施工工艺流程，把各个工艺使用的机械设备和机具综合配套、顺序衔接，合理地组织施工，以谋求工程进度最快、质量最好、机械性能和作用发挥最佳，使经济效益和社会效益均取得最高的项目效果。工程质量的好坏，不仅反映技术装备水平的高低，同时也反映施工人员的素质。以前我们的技术队伍中管理干部和操作人员，搞工程的不懂机械，搞机械的不懂工程，这些都给施工机械化带来困难，甚至影响到工程进展和施工质量，这种状况需要扭转，所以在进行施工时必须及早抓好施工管理人员、技术人员及操作人员的培训工作， 使机械化施工的设计者、 施工者和任务的执行者、操作人员，能科学地配合。