With the rapid development of China’s economy and modernization and the overheated real estate industry in recent years, the scale of construction projects has been expanding, especially the rise of high-rise buildings. Every year, various construction projects can reach more than one billion square meters, which brings new challenges to the construction and management of construction projects. This book includes construction and construction engineering, building engineering
materials, building engineering planning and design, construction engineering construction technology, construction foundation management and project management, as well as innovation of construction engineering construction management. It explains and explains the problems existing in the construction and management process, so as to provide a practical reference book for the majority of construction industry colleagues, and contribute to the development of China’s construction industry.
With the rapid development of society and increasingly fierce market competition, leading to the gradual progress of China’s construction industry, construction enterprises want to continue to develop, it is necessary to continue to study the construction technology and site management strategy. Due to the rapid development, there are also some
problems in the process of architectural design. Therefore, the construction technology requirements are more and more strict. Construction engineering is actually a more complex project, construction technology directly affects the construction quality.
In the construction project, the project supervision plays the role of supervisor, which is an indispensable part in the construction process of construction engineering. It is of great practical significance to play the role of construction engineering supervision to improve the quality of construction projects. At present, there are some problems in the process of construction engineering supervision, which affect the function of construction engineering supervision, and these problems must be solved in the development process of construction engineering supervision enterprises in China. Only by solving these problems can we ensure the efficient play of the role of construction project supervision. In order to ensure the quality of domestic construction projects and promote the sustainable and stable development of construction industry, we should pay attention to the construction technology management and quality supervision of construction projects.
在建筑工程中，工程监理扮演着监督者的角色，是建筑工程施工建设过程中不可或缺的一环， 发挥建筑工程监理的作用， 对提高建筑工程质量有着重大现实意义。现阶段，建筑工程监理过程中出现了一些问题，影响建筑工程监理作用的发挥，而这些问题是我国建筑工程监理企业发展过程中必须解决的问题。只有解决了这些问题，才能保证建筑工程监理作用的高效发挥。为了确保国内建筑工程质量，促进建筑事业的可持续稳定发展，应当重视建筑工程的施工技术管理与质量监理工作。
Since the reform and opening up policy, our country’s construction industry has developed rapidly, and the scale of urban construction has been expanding. The development speed of cities and towns has become a standard for measuring the modern civilization of a country or region. After years of hard work and practice, our country’s modern architecture has been developed with high technology, high speed and high quality. We have made many major breakthroughs and new achievements in the field of construction technology. Some technologies come up to advanced world standards, leading our country to be a great power in construction field. This manual is specially written to provide engineers, construction supervisors and senior technical workers engaged in on-site construction with a practical, rich, systematic and comprehensive construction technology reference material.
Construction survey is an extremely important technical work that runs through the entire process of engineering project construction, and can be called the “GPS” of the specific construction project implementation. In the mean time, engineering survey skills are the necessary job capabilities for first-line construction engineers. During the construction process of building project, surveying and setting out is the first and the essential procedure and also a key process to ensure the quality and design intention of the entire project. With the rapid development of social science and technology, measuring instruments and new technologies are constantly being updated. Survey technicians must not only be proficient in the usage of conventional traditional survey tools, but also need to continuously learn to use new measuring instruments, technologies and new measuring methods in order to complete the work they are facing. In practice, surveying and setting-out is a comprehensive technology that uses solid geometry, plane geometry, analytical geometry and other knowledge combined with multiple skills. Survey technicians do need to continuously learn and summarize to fully digest the knowledge and skills, and to increase the efficiency of construction projects.
建筑工程施工测量是贯穿工程项目建设全过程的一项极其重要的技术性工作，可称其是项目具体建造实施的“GPS”。同时，工程测量技能是施工一线工程技术人员必备的岗位能力。 在建筑工程项目施工中， 测量放线是第一道也是必需的工序，也是确保整个工程质量和设计意图的关键工序。随着社会科技的迅速发展，测量仪器及新技术在不断地更新换代， 测量技术人员不仅要熟练使用常规的传统测量工具，还需不断学习和掌握新的测量仪器、 技术及新的测量方法才能完成必须面对的工作。实际工作中，测量放线是一项运用立体几何、平面几何、解析几何等多项知识结合的综合技术，包含有多种技能。测量技术人员真的需要不断学习和总结才能掌握测量中的技巧，才能融会贯通，才能为提高建设工程效益增砖添瓦。
With the improvement of material life and the increase of working pressure, the incidence rate of cholecystitis has been increasing in recent years. It has become a common and frequently occurring disease in the outpatient department of gastroenterology and surgery.
Cholecystitis is often associated with cholelithiasis, which can lead to repeated attacks of biliary colic, as well as biliary tract infection, biliary obstruction, biliary stricture and other complications. The incidence rate of acute suppurative cholecystitis, gangrenous cholecystitis, acute emphysematous cholecystitis, Mirizzi syndrome, Bouveret syndrome and gallbladder perforation is low, but the disease is serious and often endangers the life of patients.
Cholelithiasis is one of the common surgical acute abdomen, which is a kind of disease that clinicians, especially general practitioners, are exposed to. Its etiology is complex, the condition is complex and changeable, in the actual process of diagnosis and treatment often produce more doubts, the development of the disease can not be effectively controlled, easy to cause further aggravation of the disease, and cause serious complications, even life-threatening.
Although it has been carefully compiled, but after all, the level is limited, there are inevitably deficiencies and even errors, we sincerely ask the readers for criticism and correction.
胆囊炎常合并胆石症，可引发反复发作的胆绞痛，还会发生胆道感染、胆道梗阻、胆道狭窄等并发症。急性化脓性胆囊炎、坏疽性胆囊炎、急性气肿性胆囊炎、Mirizzi 综合征、 Bouveret 综合征、胆囊穿孔等并发症发病率虽然较低，但病情严重，常常危及患者生命，应引起重视。
Water is the basic element for human survival and the basic guarantee of social and economic development. The problem of drinking water pollution is diverse and complex. To provide safe and high-quality drinking water, water supply enterprises must take appropriate safety measures agaist the entire water supply system, from water sources,
water plants, pipe networks to faucets, and seek systematic technical solutions. The densely placed underground pipe network and secondary water supply system, though located near the end of the water supply system, are the key and weak links for the safe water supply, and also the difficult points in the study of drinking water safety.
At present, the water quality of urban water supply in our country is generally good when the water is discharged from water plants, but water quality declines, to varying degrees, after entering the water distribution network. This is especially true for China’s current water supply system which uses surface water as the main raw water. Due to water source pollution, the addition of various agents (oxidants, coagulants, disinfectants) in the water purification process, and the technical limitations of the traditional water purification process itself, when the so-called "purified water" enters the water distribution pipe network, it reacted with pipe interior surface during its long time transportation. Many complex physical, chemical and biological interactions occur in this process produce physical deposition, electrochemical corrosion, biofilm growth, biological corrosion and the growth of animalcules etc. At the same time, various corrosion products and microorganisms interact with various disinfectants added to the water, various metal salts and xenobiotic pollutants brought into the factory water during water purification process,causing the water quality of the pipe network to go bad. Various water quality issues concerning water supply network have attracted the attention of relevant experts and industry players. The water quality issue of the water supply network will be a great challenge to water supply industry around the world in 21st century. Water quality assurance technology about water supply network has become a research focus. Research on safe drinking water distribution technology is of great significance for water plants to keep water purification effect and ensure the safety of drinking water at the end of the pipe network.
当前我国城市供水水质在水厂出水时总体是好的，但进入配水管网后就不同程度地发生了水质下降。特别对于我国目前以地表水源为主要原水的供水系统中，由于水源污染、净水工艺中各种药剂的添加（氧化剂、混凝剂、消毒剂）和传统净水工艺本身的技术局限性，致使所谓“净化水”进入配水管网后，在其长时间的输送过程中与管材内表面发生了各种复杂的物理、 化学和生物作用， 并表现为物理沉积、电化学腐蚀、生物膜生长与生物腐蚀及微小动物生长等，同时各种腐蚀产物微生物又与水中投加的各种消毒剂、水质净化过程中带入出厂水的各种金属盐类及外源污染物发生相互作用，从而导致管网水质发生变化，造成管网水质下降。给水管网中出现的各种水质问题已引起有关专家和业者高度重视， 管网水质问题将是 21 世纪对世界各国供水行业的极大挑战，给水管网中的水质保障技术已经成为研究热点。研究饮用水安全输配技术对保持水厂净水效果，保证管网末端饮用水质安全具有重要意义。