The progress of science and technology and the rapid development of global economy have greatly improved the quality of life of human society, but also brought a series of threats to human survival, such as environmental pollution and ecological deterioration, which has attracted the world’s attention in fields of environment, ecology and sustainable development. It has become a consensus of human society to protect the global environment and implement sustainable development. As a developing country with the largest population, to solve environmental problems is not only in line with China’s own long-term goal of sustainable development, but also an important embodiment of common interests of human society.
Using the concept of aesthetic description as an art level to explain the environmentalart problem is because aesthetic description itself, as an art research method, has a wide range and influence in the research of art evaluation. As the living space of human beings,environment is closely related to human life. The ultimate purpose of the formation and existence of environmental art is to provide a harmonious and beautiful living space and activity place for human beings. Therefore, the creation of modern environmental art must change the former focus on the carving of the entity, that is, to focus on the treatment of the external environment, and should take aesthetic care as the focus of environmental art creation, and turn the aesthetic focus of environmental art from the aesthetic object to the integration of the aesthetic subject and object. Excellent environmental art is the art of experience. It is the perceptual grasp of the life value and meaning of the work given by the people as the main body. Emotional life and meaning are the core of environmental art.
The occurrence of environmental art aesthetics can be divided into three stages according to the description of the aesthetic process: first, the feeling of many complex landscape phenomena such as environmental material characteristics, such as elements, order and time, etc., and the perception image with pleasure generated by the superposition of various feelings; second, the aesthetic image of environmental art is formed when the perception image is consistent with the original emotional state; and finally, the value judgment of aesthetic result, which can be correctly understood and expressed through the synthesis of subject evaluation and object evaluation.
Respiratory System is an organ system for gas exchange between human body and external environment. In the process of metabolism, the organism must constantly absorb the O2 required by metabolism from the external environment and discharge the CO2 produced. This process of gas exchange between the organism and the external environment is called respiration. Therefore, respiration is a necessary condition to maintain metabolism and other functional activities of the body. Once respiration stops, life will end. According to survey results of causes of death in 1992, respiratory diseases (excluding lung cancer) accounted for the third place in urban mortality, while in rural mortality was the first. More attention should be paid to air pollution, smoking, aging and other factors, which will increase the incidence rate and mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including chronic bronchitis, emphysema, pulmonary heart disease, bronchial asthma, lung cancer, diffuse interstitial fibrosis of lung, and pulmonary infection. This shows that respiratory diseases are increasingly harmful to human beings. If not controlled, they will become more prominent in the future. This requires efforts of medical workers and the whole society to do a good job in the prevention and treatment of respiratory diseases. This book systematically introduces the diagnosis and treatment technology of respiratory
diseases, and provides theoretical guidance materials for clinical treatment of respiratory diseases.
呼吸系统（Respiratory System）是人体与外界环境间进行气体交换的器官系统。生物体在新陈代谢的过程中，必须不断地从外界环境中摄取新陈代谢所需的 O2，排出所产生的 CO2，这种机体与外界环境之间的气体交换过程，称为呼吸。因此，呼吸是维持机体新陈代谢和其他功能活动正常进行的必要条件，一旦呼吸停止，生命也将结束。根据我国 1992 的死因调查结果，呼吸系统疾病（不包括肺癌）在城市的死亡率占第 3 位，而在农村则占首位。更应重视的是由于大气污染、吸烟、人口老龄化及其他因素，使国内外的慢性阻塞性肺病（简称慢阻肺，包括慢性支气管炎、肺气肿、肺心病）、支气管哮喘、肺癌、肺部弥散性间质纤维化，以及肺部感染等疾病的发病率、死亡率有增无减。这说明呼吸系统疾病危害人类日益严重，如未予控制，日后将更为突出， 这就需要广大医务工作者暨全社会的努力， 做好呼吸系统疾病的防治工作。本书系统介绍了呼吸系统疾病的诊疗技术， 为呼吸系统疾病临床治疗提供理论性的指导材料。
With the continuous deterioration of the water ecological environment and thede crease of the total amount of water resources year by year, our country pays moreattention to the protection of water resources and the improvement of water ecology. The excessive development and pollution have caused severe water pollution. The improvement of water environment in the river basin must go through a long and arduous period of time.In addition to the support of scientific and technological talents and funds, it is more important to need new systems and laws that keep pace with the times.
In view of the increasingly serious problem of water pollution and the fact that the fragmented treatment of river basin water pollution in our country can not achieve outstanding results in the past, “river director system” came into being, and its implementation changed the situation of “many people participate in water control” in our country. But after all, the “river director system” is only an emergency measure based on the serious water pollution crisis. Although China has decided to implement the “river irector system” in the whole country at the end of 2016, and the new “Water Pollution Prevention and Control Law”, which has been implemented since 2018, clearly stipulates the “river chief system”, there are still many difficulties in the specific operation.
This book is divided into six chapters. It analyzes and expounds the construction of river director system and water ecological protection from different perspectives, finds out various problems and difficulties, and puts forward corresponding solutions and methods.
针对日益严重的水污染问题以及过去我国流域水污染治理中碎片化的治理无法取得突出成效的现实情况，“河长制”应运而生，其实施改变了我国“多龙治水”的情形。但“河长制”毕竟只是基于严重的水污染危机所提出的应急性措施，虽然我国于 2016 年底已经决定在全国推行“河长制”，且在 2018 年开始实施的新《水污染防治法》中也以法律明确规定了“河长制”，但在具体操作上仍然存在许多困难。
The bridge construction management of our country starts late. After the efforts in recent years, although our country has made great progress in the bridge construction management, but because of the characteristics of the bridge construction, such as the difficulty of construction and so on, the bridge construction accidents also occur in our country, which has brought adverse effects on the development of the bridge cause of our country. Compared with other engineering construction, bridge construction has following characteristics: (1) generally, the construction period of bridge is long, especially for the construction of large-scale bridge, which takes several years; each bridge construction project is unique, different from any other bridge construction project, which determines the complexity and diversity of bridge construction management; (2) the mobility of personnel is large. Due to the relatively poor working conditions of bridge construction, many of the construction personnel are local migrant workers, so their engineering technology level and cultural quality are generally low, usually they leave after the completion of the project, so the mobility of construction personnel is large; (3) generally, products of bridge projects are open-air operations, with huge volume, which are greatly affected by the natural climate. The construction of the project is easily interrupted by the harsh construction environment such as flood, rain, snow, etc.
Based on this problem, this book is divided into three chapters to explain the problems of highway and bridge construction and management. The first half of this book mainly talks about the general summary of highway and bridge construction and management, including the key points and key points of bridge engineering construction, as well as the common problems in the daily construction process, and also talks about the solutions to these problems. Of course, a lot of knowledge points of highway engineering are some of our old problems, including highway construction, technology introduction, highway maintenance and green construction and so on. In addition, on the basis of the previous contents, we have added the contents related to water conservancy projects, such as water conservancy construction, technical points, engineering design, etc. So, this book covers a wide range of contents. Of course, the topic of “highway and bridge construction and management” is also wide. Therefore, readers are welcome to give timely feedback on the parts that may be neglected or omitted in a book.
我国的桥梁施工管理起步较晚，经过近些年的努力，虽然我国在桥梁施工管理方面取得了较大进步，但由于桥梁施工具有施工难度大等其自身的特点，桥梁施工事故在我国也时有发生，这对我国桥梁事业的发展带来了不利影响。与其他工程施工相比，桥梁施工具有如下特点：（1）通常桥梁建设周期较长，尤其是大型桥梁的建设施工，其周期要达数年；每个桥梁施工项目都是唯一的，区别于其他任何桥梁施工项目，这决定了桥梁施工管理的复杂性和多样性。（2）人员流动性大，由于桥梁施工作业条件相对较差，施工人员中很多是当地农民工，所以他们的工程技术水平与文化素质普遍较低， 通常是工程完工后他们就离开， 故施工人员的流动性很大。（3）通常桥梁项目产品为露天作业，体积庞大，受自然气候的影响较大，工程施工易被如洪水、雨、雪等恶劣的施工环境中断。
In recent years, in order to adapt to the rapid development of highway construction and ensure the quality of engineering construction, the Ministry of Communications has carried out the annual activity of highway construction quality for many years in succession, and carried out technical research on improving highway construction quality and special scientific research & treatment on the common quality problems of highway engineering. It strengthened the construction of the project quality management system and quality supervision, and fully implemented the quality responsibility system, and improves the quality awareness and management level of all employees, which has played a positive role in ensuring the quality of highway engineering.This book systematically and comprehensively introduces the basic knowledge and basic theories of highway engineering construction. Combining the new technologies of highway engineering construction, new materials, and various newly issued construction technical specifications and important provisions in quality acceptance standards, it strives to scientifically reflect the current high-tech construction level of road and bridge construction, train construction personnel to understand and apply the current codes and standards, and promote the development of road and bridge construction.
This book mainly introduces the construction technology of highway subgrad engineering, pavement engineering, bridge engineering and traffic engineering. It pays attention to the characteristics of China’s highway construction and focuses on the traditional construction methods. Based on the characteristics of the course that emphasizes both the theory and practice of highway engineering construction technology, this book follows the principle of combining theory with practice when compiling, and is based on the latest engineering technology standards and specifications promulgated by the Ministry of Communications. On the basis of summarizing the achievements of many years of professional teaching and industry training, it is closely integrated with engineering practice. This book has strong practicality, detailed content, wide coverage, and integrates knowledge and practice.
In the process of compiling this book, many information and materials were retrieved and consulted, and I’d like to thank the relevant personnel. Due to the limited level of the author, omissions are inevitable, and readers are invited to criticize and correct.