In recent years, with the development of national economy, the scale and difficulty of construction projects are increasing, and the research of hydrogeology and geotechnical engineering is facing new development and challenges. The earth’s crust, surface of the earth, is not only the place where human beings live, but also the geological environment of all kinds of engineering buildings. The construction of highways, railway underpasses, reservoirs, bridges and culverts, civil buildings and other engineering activities are closely related to the engineering geological and hydrogeological conditions. All kinds of geological and hydrological environment and engineering buildings must be interrelated and restricted by each other. It is of great significance to study the engineering geological and hydrogeological conditions of buildings in every stage of design, construction and use. Human engineering activities and natural geological processes will change the geological environment and affect the change of engineering geological conditions. When the engineering geological conditions can not meet the stability and safety requirements of engineering buildings, that is, there is a contradiction between the engineering geological conditions and the requirements of engineering buildings, it is called the existence of engineering geological problems. Solving engineering geological problems is also the main content of geotechnical engineering construction.
The in-depth study of hydrogeology is an important link to ensure the smooth construction of the whole geotechnical engineering, which is of great significance. We should not only consider the relationship between rock and soil and water quality, but also budget and propose the corresponding prognosis and treatment plan to ensure the effective reduction of hydrogeological impact on geotechnical engineering. Due to the limited experience of the editor, there are inevitably some shortcomings and even mistakes in the book, so we sincerely ask the readers to criticize and correct them.
近年来，随着国民经济的发展，建设工程的规模和难度都在加大，水文地质和岩土工程研究迎来了新的发展和挑战。 地球表层、 地壳是人类赖以生存的活动场所，也是各类工程建筑的地质环境。修建公路、铁路地下通道、水库、桥涵和民用建筑等工程活动，都与工程地质和水文地质条件密切相关。各种地质和水文环境与工程建筑物之间必然相互关联和制约， 研究建筑物的工程地质和水文地质条件， 对设计、施工和使用等各个阶段都具有重要的意义。人类的工程活动和自然地质作用会改变地质环境，影响工程地质条件的变化。当工程地质条件不能满足工程建筑的稳定、安全要求时，也就是工程地质条件和工程建筑要求之间存在矛盾时，就称为存在工程地质问题。解决工程地质问题也是岩土工程施工的主要内容。
With the vigorous development of water conservancy and hydropower in China, theconstruction of many water conservancy and hydropower projects, the continuous progress of water conservancy and hydropower technology, the continuous acceleration of equipment renovation and the continuous improvement of construction technology level, the quality and safety of water conservancy and hydropower projects are increasingly concerned by the state and society. It has been paid more and more attention to strengthen the quality control and inspection of water conservancy and hydropower projects and further improve the quality management level of water conservancy and hydropower projects. The quality inspection of water conservancy and hydropower projects is an important measure to ensure the quality and safety of projects, and an important link in the process of project construction and operation. The professional ethics and professional quality of the quality inspectors of water conservancy and hydropower projects are the preconditions to ensure the scientific and fair quality inspection.
Water conservancy and hydropower projects usually have the characteristics of long construction period, large investment scale, complex engineering technology, many uncertain factors in construction and difficult construction quality control. Facing the new round of rapid development of water conservancy and hydropower projects, the quality management personnel of water conservancy and hydropower projects should have solid quality management theory and higher quality management ability. Therefore, the research on quality inspection and control of water conservancy and hydropower projects has become the current theme. Only by better grasping the quality of the project, can the water conservancy and hydropower projects play its maximum effect, and then promote the economic and social development of our country.
水利水电工程通常具有建设周期长、投资规模大、工程技术复杂、施工中不确定性因素多、施工质量控制难度较大等特点， 面对水利水电工程新一轮的快速发展，水利水电工程质量管理人员应具备扎实的质量管理理论和更高的质量管理能力。 所以对水利水电工程的质量检测和控制研究就成为当下的主题， 只有更好地把握工程项目的质量，才能使水利水电工程发挥其最大的成效，进而促进我国的经济社会发展。
In today’s social development process, water conservancy and hydropower project is still a very important part, its role is very prominent, such as to meet agricultural irrigation, power generation, flood control, etc. In order to improve the use and effectiveness of water conservancy projects, it is necessary to do a good job in the foundation construction of water conservancy and hydropower projects. Through the analysis of the actual implementation of the previous water conservancy and hydropower projects, it is determined that the construction of the foundation part is prone to some problems, resulting in the foundation part of the robustness, stability is not high, resulting in the whole project stability, robustness and durability is deeply affected. In this regard, we should attach great importance to the basic part of water conservancy and hydropower projects, scientifically and reasonably use the construction technology of foundation treatment, and do a good job in the design and construction of the basic part, so as to lay the foundation for the real improvement of the construction quality of engineering foundation. From this point of view, the effective application of foundation treatment construction technology of water conservancy and hydropower engineering has higher practical significance.
Therefore, this book studies the basic knowledge, construction technology and existing status of water conservancy and hydropower projects in China from the content of ten chapters, and proposes solutions, hoping to contribute to the development and progress of water conservancy projects in China.
Water is an important component of nature, a source of life, an indispensable resource for human life and social development, and the most active element in the ecological environment. Affected by climate, water resources in China are not evenly distributed in time and space. There is a large difference in water volume between different regions, between different years in the same region, and between flood season and dry season within the year, which leads to frequent conflicts between incoming water and water consumption. As one of the oldest engineering projects in the history of human civilization, water conservancy project has always made an important contribution to human society. Water conservancy project has the characteristics of large scale, high risk and high complexity. The success of its construction not only has a great impact on social economy, but also has an inestimable impact on people’s life and property.
The construction of water conservancy project is to construct water conservancy project according to the requirements of project structure, quantity, quality, progress and cost proposed by the design. The application, operation, maintenance and protection of water conservancy project is an important part of water conservancy project management. After the completion of water conservancy project, effective management is necessary to achieve the expected effect and verify the correctness of the original planning and design; the basic task of engineering management is to keep the integrity and safety of engineering buildings and equipment in good technical condition; correctly use water conservancy engineering equipment to control, regulate and distribute water resources and give full play to its benefits of flood control, irrigation, water supply, drainage, power generation, shipping, environmental protection, etc. To do well in the construction and management of water conservancy projects is to give full play to the two wings of birds and the two wheels of vehicles.
水利工程施工是按照设计提出的工程结构、数量、质量、进度及造价等要求修建水利工程的工作。水利工程的运用、操作、维修和保护工作，是水利工程管理的重要组成部分，水利工程建成后，必须通过有效的管理，才能实现预期的效果和验证原来规划、 设计的正确性； 工程管理的基本任务是保持工程建筑物和设备的完整、安全，使其处于良好的技术状况；正确运用水利工程设备，以控制、调节、分配使用水资源，充分发挥其防洪、灌溉、供水、排水、发电、航运、环境保护等效益。做好水利工程的施工与管理是发挥工程功能的鸟之两翼、车之双轮。
With the continuous development of social economy, the requirements of urban road construction are also constantly improving, and the problem of road water accumulation has become a serious disaster in urban roads, which will not only affect the normal use of municipal roads, but also shorten their service life. Based on this, this book mainly analyzes the optimal design of municipal road water supply and drainage.
With the development of national economy and the acceleration of urban construction, people have higher and higher requirements on the transportation system. In particular, the development of municipal roads has an important impact on people’s normal life and vehicle driving safety. Problems in water supply and drainage will affect the traffic capacity of road locomotives, and may even cause vehicle slippage and traffic safety. At the same time, the long-term water accumulation of the road surface will erode the subgrade, reduce the strength of subgrade soil, and even lead to the overall damage of the subgrade. The effect of municipal road water supply and drainage engineering not only directly affects the urban road, flood control, environmental protection, but also directly related to people’s work and daily life, so it has an important position that can not be ignored. Therefore, in order to ensure the normal use of municipal roads, the normal operation of the city and people’s normal life, it is necessary to design the drainage works of municipal roads scientifically and reasonably.
All in all, the design of road water supply and drainage engineering is an important guarantee for the service life and performance of municipal roads. The scientific and reasonable design of municipal road drainage system has an important impact on the function and service life of municipal roads. Therefore, when we design the municipal road water supply and drainage system, we should combine the actual situation and lessons, optimize the design scheme of the municipal road water supply and drainage system on this basis, so as to promote it to play an important role in the process of urbanization in China.
由于国民经济的发展以及城市建设步伐的加快，人们对交通系统的要求也越来越高。 尤其是市政道路的发展对人们的正常生活及车辆的行驶安全都有着重要影响，给排水出现问题会影响道路机车的通行能力， 甚至可能会造成车辆滑移， 影响交通安全，同时路面的长期积水会对路基产生侵蚀，降低路基土强度，严重时甚至会导致路基的整体破坏。市政道路给排水工程效果的高低 , 不仅直接影响着城市道路、防洪、 环保问题 , 也直接关系着人们的工作和日常生活 , 因此具有不容忽视的重要地位。所以为了保证市政道路的正常使用、城市的正常运转、人们的正常生活 , 必须对市政道路的排水工程进行科学合理的设计。
总而言之，道路给排水工程设计是市政道路使用寿命、性能的重要保障，市政道路排水系统设计的科学性、 合理性， 对市政道路的功能及使用寿命有着重要影响，所以，我们在进行市政道路给排水设计时要结合实际情况和经验教训，在此基础上对市政道路给排水系统的设计方案进行优化，以促进其在我国城市化进程的道路上发挥重大的作用。