Forestry is the main body of ecological environment, which plays an important role and significance in economic development, ecological construction and social progress. With the continuous development and reform of China’s policies and the development of global economic integration, the development of ecological economy has gradually become an important symbol of modernization. In the face of such opportunities and challenges, forestry work shoulders a more important mission. To achieve scientific development, we must take the development of forestry as a major measure. To build ecological civilization, we must take the development of forestry as an important way. To deal with climate change, we must take the development of forestry as a strategic choice. To solve the problems of agriculture, countryside and farmers, we must take the development of forestry as an important way. Therefore, it is our responsibility to comprehensively promote the development of modern forestry and accelerate the construction of ecological civilization.
In recent decades, China’s forestry has experienced the stage of mainly wood production, and then realized the transformation to ecological construction. Nowadays, with the deepening of the understanding of forest, we are building the forest into a comprehensive functional body of complete ecological system, developed forestry industry system and advanced forest culture system. This will promote China’s forestry to a new stage of building modern forestry.
Due to the short time and limited level, there are inevitably some mistakes and mistakes in the book. Readers can make criticism and correction.
With the development of urban construction, people pay more and more attention to the environment, especially the beautification of the environment. Garden construction has become an important part of urban beautification. Garden not only plays an important role in urban landscape, but also plays an important role in ecology and leisure. More and more attention has been paid to the construction of urban gardens. Many cities have put forward the goal of building international garden cities and ecological garden cities, strengthening the landscape planning of new urban areas and green space transformation of old urban areas, and promoting the vigorous development of landscape industry. Accordingly, the social demand for landscape professionals is also increasing, especially those who know landscape planning and design, landscape engineering construction, but also green space maintenance of high skilled talents become the landscape industry in short supply. In order to meet the needs of the construction and development of various regions and cities for landscape high skilled talents, this book is specially compiled.
The characteristics of this book are that the content is closely combined with the actual production, the theoretical basis focuses on the content required by the practical skills, and closely coordinates with the practical training projects. At the same time, it also pays attention to the introduction and training of the rapidly developing advanced technology, which has three major characteristics of strong practicability, technicality and operability. The compilation of this book has widely absorbed the opinions and suggestions of relevant experts, teachers and landscape architects. It is based on the cultivation of landscape architecture professionals with comprehensive innovation ability. The contents are carefully selected. The comprehensive and systematic scientific system of relevant knowledge and skills is considered. The theoretical depth of the textbook is appropriate, and the combination of practical experience and achievements is emphasized.
本书的特点是内容紧密结合生产实际，理论基础重点突出实际技能所需要的内容， 并与实训项目密切配合， 同时也注重对当今发展迅速的先进技术的介绍和训练，具有较强的实用性、技术性和可操作性三大特点。本书编写广泛吸收了有关专家，教师及风景园林工作者的意见和建议，立足于培养具有综合创新能力的普通本科风景园林专业人才，精心选择内容，既考虑到了相关知识和技能的科学体系的全面系统性，教材理论深度合适，注重对实践经验与成就的结合。
Today’s world has entered the information age, information has become an important strategic resource, information science has become one of the most active disciplines, information technology has changed people’s life and work style, information industry has become the leading industry of national economy. It is the basis of information transmission. Communication technology has become the fastest growing and fastest-growing industry in the information industry. At present, the rapid development of personal communication system and ultra-high speed communication network has promoted the further development of information science, and has become a powerful driving force for the international community and global economy in the 21st century. The modern communication technology of digital communication, satellite communication and sensor network has developed from wired communication to wireless communication, from communication between fixed equipment to mobile communication, from wireless communication to wireless Internet, to sensor network technology. The future communication will provide people with all-round and seamless mobile access, and ultimately realize any communication at any place and at any time, so that the communication technology can adapt to the needs of the development of society, showing a lasting momentum.
And mechanical and electrical innovation is also progressing with the development of society. Innovation is the development of inheritance. Only when we have a deep understanding of the known objects, affirm and retain the reasonable contents, we can find the contents that can not meet the needs of the reality; if we have a certain understanding of the actual needs and have not seen the objects that can meet the needs, then innovation will have a starting point. The result corresponding to the starting point is not unique, but varies from person to person. There may be differences in principle and structure. This feature provides a wide space for innovative design. Mechanical and electrical innovation tries to combine demand problem, scientific theory, reference object and method application to show the application of mechanical and electrical innovation design.
当今世界已经进入了信息时代，信息成为一种重要的战略资源，信息科学成为最为活跃的学科领域之一，信息技术改变着人们的生活和工作方式，信息产业已经成为国民经济的主导产业，作为信息传输基础的通信技术则成为信息产业中发展最为迅速，进步最快的行业。目前，个人通信系统和超高速通信网络迅猛发展，推动了信息科学的进一步发展， 并成为 21 世纪国际社会和全球经济的强大动力。 数字通信、卫星通信以及传感器网络的现代通信技术从有线通信到无线通信，从固定设备间的通信到移动通信，从无线通信到无线因特网，到传感器网络技术不断发展。未来的通信将为人们提供全方位以及无缝的移动性接入， 最终实现任何人在任何地方、任何时间进行任何方式的通信， 使得通信技术适应社会的发展需要呈.现经久不衰的势头。
From the birth of the first computer in the world to the increasing popularity of Internet today, the development speed of computer can be described as rapid progress, which also brings human civilization into the information age. The emergence of computer network makes people have a more choice in obtaining and transmitting information, and it is a choice that can provide unprecedented “liberalization”. It makes the speed, quality and scope of information spread a qualitative leap in time and space.
With the wide application and rapid development of computer in various fields of society, the popularization speed of network is beyond people’s imagination. The information transmitted, stored and processed through the network is growing exponentially. The network has become an indispensable infrastructure in the information society. However, network security and network application security have always been the focus of people’s close attention. The openness of the network, especially the Internet network, and the existence of security threats such as system defects and loopholes, malicious attacks, computer viruses, misoperation of staff and weak security awareness, make the security of various network-based applications such as e-commerce, e-government and so on are seriously challenged. Therefore, strengthening network security management and improving network security and availability has become a major issue related to national security, economic development and social stability, and it has important strategic significance.
With the advent of the Internet era, the “moral vacuum” appears in virtual space, which has a great impact on the traditional social life order. College students are an important part of network users. According to the survey, with the acceleration of university information process and the improvement of campus network access conditions, college student’ network behavior is becoming more and more common, and Internet access has become an important part of college students’ learning, communication, entertainment and other life. At the same time, due to the increasing number of crimes on the Internet, cyber crime has become a social and public security issue that developed countries and developing countries have to pay attention to. standardizing network behavior and preventing network crime has become one of the subjects that the whole society must face.
随着计算机在社会各个领域中的广泛应用和快速发展，网络的普及速度超出了人们的想象，通过网络传输、存储和处理的信息星几何级数增长，网络已经成为信息社会不可或缺的基础设施。但是网络安全以及网络应用安全一直以来都是人们密切关注的焦点，网络尤其是 Internet 网络的开放性加上系统的缺陷与漏洞、恶意攻击、计算机病毒、工作人员的误操作以及安全意识淡薄等安全威胁的存在，使得基于网络的各种应用如电子商务、电子政务等的安全受到了严重挑战。因此，加强网络安全管理、提高网络安全性和可用性已经成为关系国家安全、经济发展和社会稳定的一个重大课题，具有重要的战略意义。
As an important infrastructure in China, the construction level of port and waterway engineering determines the future development and trade status of ports and channels. In recent years, with the popularization of various automation and information technology, port and waterway construction has gradually developed towards intelligent direction, but there is still a certain gap compared with developed countries. This paper analyzes the current situation of China’s port and waterway engineering, clarifies the problems existing in the development and construction of port and waterway engineering, and looks forward to the suggestions for accelerating the construction and development of port and waterway engineering in the future. As an important infrastructure in China, the construction level of port and waterway engineering determines the future development and trade status of ports and channels.
With the development of information technology, information and intelligent port and waterway construction is an important direction of its future development, at the same time, it can improve its comprehensive ability to a certain extent. This paper mainly analyzes the port and waterway engineering construction and construction technology, and explores the port management and marine surveying and mapping.