With the in-depth research and close combination of basic medicine and clinical medicine, laboratory medicine is changing rapidly. As an “ancient” and “emerging” marginal discipline, it plays an important role in the process of disease diagnosis and treatment. With the rapid development of national economy and the continuous improvement of living standards, people’s awareness of health and the transformation of medical model have changed the social demand for medical services, and also put forward new requirements for the positioning of medical laboratory work.
This book is based on the basic theory of blood test, clinical test and biochemical test. Based on the laboratory test and examination diagnosis of various common diseases, it expounds the basic methods and technologies in the physiology and pathology of hematopoietic system, the basis of blood test, the blood disease test, the body fluid test, the male reproductive system disease test, the female reproductive system disease test, the perinatal health care and test, the examination of birth and child diseases, the examination of chromosomal and genetic diseases, the disorder and examination of glucose metabolism, the disorder and examination of lipid metabolism and the disorder of water salt metabolism and acid-base balance and so on. The purpose of the book is: “taking the test as the main line, the clinical as the goal, and the disease as the center”. It has the characteristics of “comprehensive, innovative, practical and pragmatic”. It strives to integrate theory with practice, adheres to the combination of experimental technology and clinical diagnosis and treatment, and combines the development of international new technology with the specific domestic reality, so as to make the majority of medical laboratory workers, clinicians and experimental medical researchers members, teachers and students of medical colleges and universities learn and refer to professional theories, technical knowledge and clinical materials from different levels and perspectives.
Today’s world presents the development pattern of political multipolarization and economic globalization. With the rapid development of science and technology, the competition between countries, regions and regions is more intense. The importance of plundering resources and market has been replaced by the competition of talents, knowledge, information, high-tech development; that is to say, the competition of human resource stock and improvement. As the world’s largest population country, China’s rich human resources have made outstanding contributions to social development. However, this advantage has become an obstacle from time to time on the road of economic construction, and many problems have arisen. For example, the efficiency of market allocation is low, the brain drain is serious, and the contradiction between talent shortage and talent waste coexists. Faced with the problems of talent competition and human resources that have a greater and more profound impact on economic development than product competition and capital competition, how to attract talents, develop human resources, and build a country with a large population into a country with strong human resources has always been the concern of China’s government at all levels, experts and scholars, and the whole society.
This book introduces the elements of human resources management and the relationship between human resources and economic growth. Suggestions for improvement that readers given will be gratefully received.
当今世界呈现出政治多极化和经济全球化的发展格局，科学技术迅猛发展，国家与国家、地区与地区之间的竞争更加激烈，掠夺资源、市场的重要性，已让位于人才竞争、知识竞争、信息竞争、高新技术的开发和发展的竞争，即让位于人力资源存量和提高的竞争。作为世界第一人口大国的中国，其丰富的人力资源为社会发展做出了卓越的贡献。 但是， 这种优势在经济建设的道路上时不时地成为一种阻碍，许多问题应运而生。例如，市场配置效率低下，人才外流现象严重，人才短缺与人才浪费并存的矛盾等。面对比产品竞争、资本竞争对经济发展有更大、更深远影响的人才竞争和人力资源自身所带来的问题，如何招揽人才、开发人力资源，把人口大国建成人力资源强国，一直是我国各级政府、专家学者及全社会关注的问题。
The construction industry occupies a very important position in the development of our national economy. The development of the national economy will inevitably lead to the expansion of the construction scale and the improvement of the technical level. Among them, the renewal and development of the construction equipment construction technology is particularly significant. In this process, new materials, new processes and new equipment are constantly introduced and used, and construction specifications and construction technology are constantly updated. With the improvement of people’s living standards, the share of construction equipment in the whole construction economy is also gradually rising. In order to enable readers to systematically master more advanced knowledge of installation engineering construction technology, the editor has compiled the book of HVAC construction and installation technology based on years of teaching experience and construction experience.
This book mainly introduces the processing and connection methods of various building equipment system pipes, the construction and installation process of equipment, the anti-corrosion and insulation methods and construction requirements of pipes and equipment during the construction and installation of HVAC system. This book focuses on the organic combination of theory and practice, and introduces the new materials, new processes and new construction and installation requirements in recent years, which makes the content of this book more abundant, detailed and highly operational.
Energy is the cornerstone of the existence and development of human society and the basic condition of economic development and civilization progress. Coal is the main energy and important industrial raw materials in China, and is an important support for China’s rapid economic development. Since the reform and opening up, the coal industry has persisted in relying on scientific and technological progress, the scientific research system has become increasingly complete, and the innovation ability has been greatly improved, forming a large number of world-class innovation achievements. Some basic theories and key technologies are among the advanced ranks in the world. In many technical fields, they are changing from “follow runner” to “parallel runner” and “leader”. The overall level has achieved a leap from quantitative growth to qualitative improvement. The coal production has realized the transformation from primitive and backward mining to mechanized and intelligent mining, and the coal machinery equipment has realized the transformation from foreign introduction and imitation to independent research and development, invention and creation.
The existing conditions of coal resources in China determine that there are few resources suitable for opencast mining. The underground coal mine is the main body of coal production in China, and promoting the intelligent mining of underground coal mine is the key section of coal technology upgrading. Some large-scale coal enterprises in China, through the establishment of a scientific and technological innovation mechanism combining production, learning, research and application and joint research with scientific research institutions, colleges and universities and coal machinery equipment enterprises, have developed an intelligent production system of comprehensive mining complete equipment with independent intellectual property rights, put forward an intelligent mining production mode of “machine operation without human following, safety inspection by human doing”, realized the remote control of coal mining in the fully mechanized working face and the ground control center and led the development direction of coal science and technology in China. Huangling Mining Company of Shaanxi Coal Chemical Industry Group attaches great importance to the innovation and development of coal mining technology. In recent years, it has cooperated with Beijing Tiandi Mako Electro-hydraulic Control System Co., Ltd., Tiandi Technology Co., Ltd., Ningxia Tiandi Benniu Industry Group Co., Ltd. and Xi’an Coal Mining Machinery Co., Ltd., Shanxi Pingyang Heavy Industry Machinery Co., Ltd., China Coal Zhangjiakou Coal Mine Machinery Co., Ltd. and other technical research and equipment manufacturing companies, through hard working and joint research, firstly created the model of remote control mining mode of ground control center and realized the normalization of ground control mining of domestic complete set of comprehensive mining equipment. The successful practice of intelligent unmanned mining technology in Huangling Mining Company fills in the blank of coal intelligent mining technology in China, and promotes the intelligent unmanned mining technology to reach the international leading level. But we have to see that our intelligent unmanned mining technology is still in its infancy and there are many unsolved problems in skills, technology and management. We still need to continue to increase research and development efforts in sensing, monitoring, control, internet of things, etc. And we also need to improve the system, stability and coordination of intelligent mining technology, so as to promote the level of safe, efficiency and intelligent mining of coal to a higher level, and make new contributions to the transformation and upgrading of coal industry.
能源是人类社会存在和发展的基石，是经济发展和文明进步的基本条件。煤炭是我国主体能源和重要工业原料， 是中国经济快速发展的重要支撑。 改革开放以来，煤炭行业坚持依靠科技进步，科研体系日益完备，创新能力大幅度提高，形成了一大批世界一流的创新成果。一些基础理论和关键技术跻身世界先进行列，在很多技术领域正由“跟跑者”向“并行者”“领跑者”转变，整体水平实现了从量的增长向质的提升的跃升。煤炭生产实现了由原始落后的开采向机械化、智能化开采的转变，煤机装备实现了由国外引进、仿制，向自主研发、发明创造的转变。
China is in the stage of rapid economic development, and the total amount of resource consumption is growing rapidly. Therefore, we must establish and seriously implement the scientific outlook on development, adhere to the concept of sustainable development. For this reason, our government attaches great importance to resource conservation as a basic national policy, and puts forward the long-term strategic goal of building a resource-saving and environment-friendly society. Building is the main place for human beings to engage in all kinds of activities. Building activities not only have a huge impact on natural resources and environment, but also are the greatest energy areas for potential conservation. Therefore, it is the key area of energy conservation and emission reduction in China and promoting the sustainable development of society.
According to the current building situation in China, the total area of existing buildings is about 550×108 square meters, and the new building area of urban and rural areas in China is about 20×108 square meters every year. Due to the large building area base, the total building energy consumption is also large, which has been ranked in the forefront of the world, but in terms of unit building area energy consumption and per capita energy consumption level, China is still far below the level of developed countries. In this case, the green building of modern architecture comes into being from the perspective of energy conservation and ecological environment concern. It is the general concern of people for the global ecological environment and the extensive and in-depth thought of sustainable development. It is important for architecture to expand from the aspect of energy conservation to comprehensively examine the construction activities and the global ecological environment, the surrounding ecological environment and the living environment of residents architectural concept and practice. In this process, green building design directly affects the implementation of green building. In the process of design, whether it can save resources, protect the environment, reduce pollution to the maximum extent, provide people with healthy, applicable and efficient use space is directly related to whether it can create a harmonious symbiotic building with nature, and whether it can implement the sustainable development strategy of our country. Therefore, it is of great significance to pay attention to the green building design under the concept of sustainable development, which is also the original intention of this book.
In the process of writing this book, the author has referred to a large number of domestic and foreign literature about green building, and cited the research results of some experts and scholars. Here we express our sincere thanks. Due to the shortness of time and the limited level of the author, there are inevitably some omissions and inadequacies in the book. We also urge readers to put forward valuable opinions and suggestions, so as to better improve the book in the future.
从我国当前的建筑情况来看，现有建筑的总面积约为 550×108 m2，未来中国城乡每年新建建筑面积约 20×108 m2，由于建筑面积基数较大，建筑能耗总量也较大，已排在世界各国前列，但就单位建筑面积能耗和人均能耗水平而言，我国还远远低于发达国家水平。在这种情况下，从能源节约、生态环境关注等视角审视现代建筑的绿色建筑应运而生，它是人们对全球生态环境的普遍关注和可持续发展思想的广泛深入，是建筑从能源节约方面扩展到全面审视建筑活动与全球生态环境、周边生态环境和居住者所生活的环境的重要建筑理念和实践。在此过程中，绿色建筑设计直接影响绿色建筑的实施，在设计的过程中能否最大限度地节约资源、保护环境、减少污染，为人们提供健康、适用和高效的使用空间，直接关系能否创造出与自然和谐共生的建筑，能否落实我国的可持续发展战略。因此，关注可持续发展理念下的绿色建筑设计有着较强的时代意义，这也是本书撰写的初衷。