Waste heat refers to the energy to be discarded or discharged after the completion of the process. Some of the waste heat discharge temperatures are very high, some are relatively low, and some are mixed with a large number of dust and pollutants. When the waste heat is discharged into the atmosphere and environment, it will not only cause the waste of energy, but also cause serious pollution to the environment. The relevant law of thermodynamics indicates that there is a certain amount of available energy in the waste heat discharged. How to recover and use this part of available energy, improve the utilization rate of energy, and reduce the pollution of the environment has become an important issue of energy conservation and environmental protection.
The features of this book are as follows:
(1) In the relevant references, most of the description and explanation of “waste heat recovery” are concentrated in the “technical scheme” itself, that is, only the system diagram is given, and it is pointed out that it is composed of several components, and the design and calculation of the system, especially the design and calculation of important components or equipment, are not explained basically, which brings difficulties to the manufacture, promotion and application of waste heat recovery equipment. In view of the above situation, this book focuses on the principle and design of waste heat recovery, and focuses on design. The author believes that only by mastering the design calculation method and designing the key equipment, can we really master the technology itself and improve and develop the waste heat recovery system.
(2) The author of this book has been engaged in teaching and industrial services in the field of energy for a long time, and has participated in the research, development and design of many industrial departments' waste heat recovery projects. The design methods and most examples in this book have the background of industrial application.
Considering the wide application field of waste heat recovery, the numerous industrial sectors involved, and the continuous emergence of new technologies and schemes, the content of this book still needs to be improved. We hope the publication of this book can provide a little help to the cause of waste heat recovery.
With the strong support and careful guidance of the Basic Investigation Department of China Geological Survey Bureau, the remote sensing monitoring of mines has achieved fruitful results. In order to further promote the industrialization application of domestic satellite data in the dynamic supervision of the current situation of mineral resources development, the aviation remote center has undertaken and completed the national high technology industrialization project of “the dynamic supervision of the current situation of mineral resources development based on domestic satellite” issued by the National Development and Reform Commission. According to the characteristics of domestic satellite data, the existing technical process and application system of mine remote sensing monitoring are developed, transformed and integrated, and the related software and hardware supporting facilities are developed and enhanced. Through the application demonstration and system construction of dynamic supervision of mineral resources development based on domestic satellite, the industrial application of domestic satellite data is promoted. This promotes the scientific and innovative means of land and resources supervision, and improves the level and efficiency of mine development monitoring. Through the implementation of the project, a dynamic supervision system for the current situation of mineral resources development has been formed, which organically links the real-time requirements of land and resources supervision work with the autonomy of domestic satellites. According to the characteristics of domestic satellite data, targeteddevelopment and demonstration application have been carried out, which provides technical preparation for the industrial application of domestic satellite data, improves the ability of rapid monitoring of the current situation of mineral resources development, totally changes the conventional monitoring mode of mine development based on foreign data (once a year) and increases a new real-time dynamic inspection mode of mine development based on domestic data (more than one year). The mine monitoring center, which integrates satellite orbit prediction, rapid data processing, field verification management and mine encounter monitoring map system, has been initially established, which forms the real-time dynamic monitoring capacity of 1:50000-1:10000 mineral resources development status based on domestic data and the emergency investigation capacity within 24 hours. It lays the foundation for the industrialization application of domestic satellite data.
在中国地质调查局基础调查部的大力支持和精心指导下，矿山遥感监测工作取得了丰硕的成果。为进一步推动国产卫星数据在矿产资源开发现状动态监管工作中的产业化应用，航遥中心承担并完成了国家发展和改革委员会下达的“基于国产卫星的矿产资源开发现状动态监管高技术产业化示范工程”国家高技术产业化项目。针对国产卫星数据的特点，对矿山遥感监测工作已有的技术流程和应用体系进行适应性开发、改造与集成，开发或增强相关的软硬件配套设施等；通过基于国产卫星的矿产资源开发动态监管的应用示范和系统建设，推进国产卫星数据的产业应用，促进国土资源监管手段的科学化与创新，提高矿山开发监测的水平和监测效益。通过项目实施，初步开发形成了矿产资源开发现状动态监管系统，有机地将国土资源监管工作的实时性要求与国产卫星的自主性紧密地衔接起来，根据国产卫星数据的特点进行了针对性开发和示范应用， 为国产卫星数据的产业化应用进行了技术准备，提高了矿产资源开发现状快速监测的能力，彻底改变了基于国外数据的矿山开发常规监测工作模式（一年一次），新增了基于国产数据的矿山开发实时动态巡查工作方式（一年多次）。初步建立了集卫星轨道预测、数据快速处理、野外核查管理与矿山遇感监测-张图系统于一体的矿山监测中心，形成了基于国产数据的 1∶ 5 万～1∶ 1 万矿产资源开发现状实时动态监测的能力和 24 小时内的应急调查能力，为国产卫星数据的产业化应用奠定了基础。
“Architecture Construction Technology” is the basic and required course for civil engineering related majors in Higher Vocational Education institutions. The task of the course is to study the construction technology, construction skills and construction methods of the main types of civil engineering construction. Construction technology has strong practicality and comprehensiveness, wide range of social application. And the new technology is updated quickly. This course strives to broaden the professional scope, expand the knowledge scope, reflect the advanced technical level, meet the needs of development, comprehensively apply the basic theory and knowledge, solve the practical problems encountered in the project. And the content conforms to the actual needs of the existing construction level.
In order to meet the needs of the training objectives of practical talents in Higher Vocational Education in China, the teaching materials are closely combined with the practice of today’s construction technology. From the perspective of strengthening and training operation skills, it better reflects the latest practical knowledge and operation technology of the profession, and cultivates students’ practical ability. So it can select a reasonable construction scheme according to the specific conditions of the project, and use advanced production technology to control the project cost and complete the project with quality and quantity guaranteed.
This book rearranges its system, structure and content according to the task driven compilation idea. Its content is based on the current standards and construction specifications of our country, and strives to make the knowledge system complete, operable and closely combined with the reality. The book aims at the teaching of higher vocational education, and is based on the basic content of construction technology and organization. With the degree of necessity and sufficiency, combining theory with practice, being easy and simple, applying learning to practice, highlighting practical and practical links and contents as well as skill training, it reflects the characteristics and features of Higher Vocational Education institutions, and meets the actual teaching requirements of Higher Vocational Education institutions.
Land resource refers to the land that can be used for agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry or other purposes. It is the basic material and labor object of human existence, with two contents of quality and quantity. In the process of utilization, it may be necessary to take different types and different degrees of transformation measures. Land resources have certain spatiotemporal characteristics, that is, under the technical and economic conditions of different regions and different historical periods, the contents may be inconsistent. For example, large area marsh is difficult to control because of water logging. In the historical period of small-scale agricultural economy, it is not suitable for agricultural use and cannot be regarded as agricultural land resources. But today, it is the agricultural land resources that have the technical conditions for management and development. Therefore, some scholars think that land resources include two aspects: the natural attribute and the economic attribute.
This book mainly carries on the comprehensive management and the analysis from six chapters to our country land resources management and the real property economy. It proposes the solution to the present existing questions. We hope that it can have certain help.
In the development of national economy, water conservancy is an important part. After a long time of development and evolution, remarkable results have been achieved. However, from the current actual situation, there are still some deficiencies in the management of water conservancy projects in China. It does not only affects the economic benefits of the project construction, but also the social economic development and people's daily life and production. Therefore, in the future development, we must enhance the importance of water conservancy project management, so as to better adapt to the requirements of the development of the new era.
In addition, because water conservancy projects are often built in some areas with underdeveloped traffic conditions, the transportation cost of mechanical equipment and materials will be relatively high. In the process of practice, if a perfect and feasible construction plan cannot be formulated, the quality of project construction cannot be controlled and guaranteed. Through the development of project management, the above problems can be effectively solved to achieve the whole process management. This can not only save a lot of cost and time for enterprises, but also guarantee the quality of engineering construction. In the process of practice, the enterprise needs to send out professional project management person and set up a special project management department to comprehensively optimize the construction scheme, so as to complete the project construction task with quality and quantity and highlight the social value of water conservancy project to the maximum extent on the premise of cost saving.
This book is divided into 11 chapters to analyze the contemporary water conservancy project construction and project management in detail, and put forward solutions to the problems found. We hope it can help relevant staff in work.
在国民经济发展中， 水利事业是至关重要的组成部分， 经过长时间的发展演变，现已取得显著成效，但从目前实际情况来看，我国在水利工程管理工作中仍存在一些不足，如此不仅对该工程建设经济效益产生影响，同时还给社会经济发展以及人们的日常生活生产带来一系列安全隐患。为此，在今后发展中，一定要提升对水利工程管理工作的重视程度，从而更好地适应新时期发展的要求。
此外，由于水利工程经常会建设在一些交通状况不发达的地区，机械设备材料的运输费用也会相对较高，实践过程中，若不能制定出完善可行的施工方案，便无法对工程建设质量进行控制和保障，而通过工程管理工作的开展，则可有效解决上述问题，实现水利工程的全过程管理，不仅可为企业节约大量成本和时间，同时还可为工程建设质量提供保障。实践过程中，企业需派遣出专业的项目管理人员，并成立专门的项目管理部门， 对施工方案进行全面优化， 从而可在节约成本的前提下，保质保量地完成工程建设任务，最大限度地凸显水利工程的社会价值。