China is a developing country with more people and less land. According to the assessment, the reasonable number of China’s cultivated land bearing population is 800 million, and the maximum theoretical bearing capacity is only 1.5 billion. By the end of 1998, China’s population had reached 1.248 trillion, and it would reach 1.5 billion in 2020. The highest peak would reach 1.6 billion. Land remediation is the consolidation of unreasonably used land, the restoration of disaster-damaged agricultural land, the abandoned land of industrial and mining enterprises and temporary transportation land, and the development of reserve land resources, which is aimed at improving the utilization rate of the land and ensuring the sustainable use of land resources. At present, the situation of cultivated land protection in China is becoming increasingly prominent. The state has accordingly proposed to strictly adhere to the red line of 1.8 billion mu of cultivated land, raising the status of cultivated land protection to the height of national strategic security. In addition, the state has also continuously put forward major measures for the construction of a new socialist countryside and the coordinated development of urban and rural areas. Objectively speaking, the status of land remediation is also continuously improved. Therefore, recent land remediation activities not only require land expansion and grain increase, but also meet the new requirements of opportunities and challenges faced by land remediation. High-standard basic farmland construction, construction land remediation, land development and reclamation, and urban and rural construction land increase and decrease should be included in the scope of land remediation activities. Therefore, the content of land remediation will continue to expand, and the scope, field, and coverage will also increase, which will put forward higher requirements for the implementation and management of land remediation planning. At the same time, the improvement of the importance of land remediation planning will also bring very favorable conditions for the implementation and management of land remediation planning. This book systematically introduces land remediation and urban-rural planning to provide theoretical guidance materials for future work.
我国是一个人多地少的发展中国家。据评估，我国耕地承载人口的合理数量为8 亿，最大理论承载量也只有 15 亿，而 1998 年末我国人口已达 12.481 亿， 2020 年将达到 15 亿，最高峰将达到 16 亿。土地整治是以提高土地利用率、保障土地资源可持续利用为目的，对未合理利用土地的整理，对灾毁农地、工矿企业废弃地和临时交通用地的修复，以及开发后备土地资源等活动。目前，我国的耕地保护形势日趋突出， 国家相应提出了要严格坚守 18 亿亩耕地红线， 把耕地保护的地位提升到了国家战略安全的高度。另外，国家也不断提出社会主义新农村建设和城乡统筹发展的重大举措，从客观上来说，土地整治的地位也在不断提升。所以近期的土地整治活动不仅要求扩地增粮，还要满足土地整治面临的机遇与挑战的新要求，要把高标准基本农田建设、建设用地整治、土地开发复垦、城乡建设用地增减挂钩等内容纳入到土地整治活动的范围。因此，土地整治活动的内容将会不断扩充，涉及的范围、领域、覆盖面也会不断增大，这对土地整治规划实施管理将会提出更高的要求。同时， 土地整治规划重要性的提升也会为土地整治规划实施管理带来十分有利的条件。本书系统介绍了土地整治与城乡规划，为今后的工作提供理论指导材料。
Civil engineering is a general term of science and technology for the construction of various engineering facilities. It refers to the applied materials, equipment and technical activities such as survey, design, construction, maintenance and repair, as well as the objects of engineering construction, that is, various engineering facilities that built on the ground or underground, on land or in water, directly or indirectly for human life , production, military, scientific research services, such as houses, roads, railways, transportation pipelines, tunnels, bridges, canals, dams, ports, power stations, airports, offshore platforms, water supply and drainage, and protection projects. Reasonable design is not only related to the level of construction, but also inseparable from the development of the country’s basic industries and the safety of people’s lives and property. At the same time, in actual civil engineering construction, superb design can often optimize the construction steps and even shorten the construction period. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of civil engineering construction technology, this book explains the operation of traditional civil engineering construction technology, points out the key points of the application of new technologies in civil engineering construction, makes a technical analysis and summary of civil engineering construction technology, and makes a prospects on the development of civil engineering construction technology.
Civil engineering construction technology is constantly exploring, innovating and developing; it has been used in engineering construction and achieved good economic and social benefits. We must always maintain the vitality of innovation, develop and apply new technologies, and continuously improve the construction technology of civil engineering.
BIM (Building Information Modeling) technology is a kind of digital tool applied in building planning, design, construction, operation and management in the field of civil engineering. BIM can integrate all kinds of information in the whole life cycle of buildings, share and transmit information, provide collaborative work for all parties in the whole process of construction and operation, provide technical support for industrial chain connection and industrial construction, and create conditions for improving quality, efficiency, energy conservation and environmental protection of construction industry.
The emergence of BIM has led to a new revolution in the construction industry. It breaks through the bottleneck of traditional design methods, adopts three-dimensional parametric design concept, defines three-dimensional model with a new method, and greatly improves the efficiency of the whole process of construction project from initial design, construction to later operation management. The value of BIM technology has been recognized by the owner, designer, constructor, etc. It can be predicted that BIM technology will make great progress in the future construction industry and lead the construction industry to a new height.
Although BIM technology plays a revolutionary role in the construction industry, it is a new thing after all. Relevant technicians, such as design, construction and operation and maintenance personnel, do not have a comprehensive understanding of BIM technology. Civil engineering students in colleges and universities know little about BIM technology, which is far from the technical requirements and development trend of the whole industry. In order to integrate with industry development and market demand faster and better, it is necessary to make a thorough and detailed review of BIM technology research and application in civil engineering. Therefore, in the process of writing this book, starting from the origin and development of BIM, it analyzes the bottleneck problems in BIM promotion process, and looks forward to the development trend of BIM, in order to show the latest trend and achievements of civil engineering development, and contribute to the development of civil engineering, software engineering, information engineering and other disciplines.
Due to the limited level of editors and the rush of time, there are inevitably some shortcomings in the book. The author sincerely hopes that teachers, students and readers will put forward valuable opinions and give criticism and correction, with a view to further revision and improvement.
BIM（建筑信息模型）技术是一种在土木工程领域中应用于建筑物规划、设计、施工、运营以及管理等方面的数字化工具。 BIM 能整合建筑物全生命周期内的各种信息并进行信息的共享和传递， 为项目全过程各方建设及运营主体提供协同工作，为产业链贯通和工业化建造提供技术保障，为建筑业的提质增效、节能环保创造条件。
建筑信息模型（Building Information Modeling， BIM）的出现，引发了建筑行业一场新革命，它突破了传统设计方法的瓶颈，采用三维参数化的设计理念，以一种全新的方法定义三维模型，使得建筑项目从初期设计、施工到后期运营管理的全过程效率都得到了大幅提升， BIM 技术的价值得到了业主方、设计方、施工方等的认可。可以预见 BIM 技术在未来建筑行业将取得长足发展，并引领建筑行业达到一个新的高度。
虽然 BIM 技术对于建筑行业有着革命性的作用，但它毕竟是新生事物，设计、施工和运维等相关技术人员对它的认知还不够全面，高校土木类学生对这一技术也所知甚少，这一现状与整个行业的技术要求和发展趋势相距甚远，为了更快更好地与行业发展和市场需求相融合， 必要对 BIM 在土木工程中的技术研究与应用情况做深入细致的梳理。因此，本书在撰写过程中，从 BIM 的起源与发展出发，解析了BIM 推广过程中的瓶颈问题，并对 BIM 的发展趋势进行了展望，以期展现土木工程发展的最新态势和成就，为土木工程、软件工程和信息工程等学科的发展贡献绵薄之力。
Surgery is a science to study the occurrence, development, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of surgical diseases. It is a professional department with surgical resection and repair as the main treatment means. Surgical diseases are divided into five categories: trauma, infection, tumor, deformity and dysfunction. These diseases often need to be treated by surgery or manual treatment as the main means. Therefore, surgery has become a unique surgical treatment. People also often regard the need for surgical treatment as the standard to distinguish internal medicine from surgical diseases. But the surgical science is not equal to surgery, surgery is only one of the treatment methods of surgical diseases.
There are many kinds of surgery, especially the corresponding nursing techniques and methods. But the surgery that people usually understand is the visible wound. The surgical nursing technology that we are familiar with is the disinfection, bandaging and dressing change of the wound. In fact, the surgical nursing process is also related to the internal trauma of the patient or the surgical nursing of the invisible wound. In addition, the treatment of the patient is based on the premise of nursing treatment. Before the treatment, the nursing personnel need to carry out relevant nursing preparation, and after the treatment, they need to carry out daily rehabilitation care and observation. Therefore, from the medical point of view, nursing is closely related to treatment, and neither side can exist independently. It can be said that the work of surgical nursing plays an important role in the process of surgical treatment, so the development and innovation of its technology, whether for medical staff or patients, is very important.
Combined with the author’s working experience, this book introduces the nursing standards of surgical system diseases in detail, and provides theoretical guidance for the majority of medical nursing workers.
外科其实分类很多，相应的护理技术和方法也尤为繁多，但是人们通常理解的外科多为可见的伤痕或者伤口， 大家所熟悉的外科护理技术就是伤口的消毒、 包扎、换药等，其实不然，外科的护理过程中也关乎到患者身体内部的创伤或者不可见伤口的外科护理，加上对病患的治疗是建立在护理处理的前提下的，在治疗前需要护理人员进行相关的护理准备， 在治疗后需要对其进行日常的康复护理和观察， 所以，从医学的角度来讲，护理是和治疗息息相关的，任何一方都不能脱离而独立存在。可以说，外科护理的工作在外科治疗的过程中有着举足轻重的作用，所以对其技术的发展与创新就，不论是对医护人员还是对患者，都是非常重要的。
For thousands of years, infectious diseases have been threatening human health, not only bringing great disasters to human beings, but also changing the process of human history. For example, plague, influenza and smallpox have occurred many times in the world. The incidence of infectious diseases is closely related to climate, geographical environment and social factors. With the development of society, the development of prevention and evidence-based medicine has made great progress. Some infectious diseases have been effectively controlled, for example, smallpox has been eliminated, and polio and leprosy are about to be eliminated. However, due to population growth, urbanization and changes in human behavior, the pattern of infectious diseases is also changing. Gonorrhea and syphilis have revived, and some new infectious diseases have emerged, such as AIDS, dengue, Bovine Spongiform Encephali-tis, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, SARS, influenza in birds, influenza A ( H1N1 ), etc. In some areas, measles, rubella, HFMD and hemorrhagic fever are increasing. This not only brings new threats to human health, but also causes great losses to the global economy. In recent years, the resistance of community bacteria has increased, especially tuberculosis, gonorrhoeae, shigella, salmonella and streptococcus pneumococcus, which also poses a new threat to human health. Apart from the fact that most of the original infectious diseases are still spreading or re raging, newly discovered, multi variant or infectious diseases without vaccine may also cause outbreaks at any time, threatening human health and social stability. Infectious diseases will continue for a long time in the future, and the struggle between human beings and infectious diseases is not over.
This book is based on the clinical practice of infectious diseases and arranged by the way of transmission. It has the functions of teaching of the modern infectious disease and popular science, and is convenient for medical staff, staff and residents to use for reference. We should focus on popularizing the knowledge of prevention and control of infectious diseases, and maximize the ability of residents to recognize and prevent infectious diseases. Once infectious diseases occur, community residents should be able to protect and isolate as early as possible, and come to designated hospitals for treatment, so as to fundamentally control the epidemic of infectious diseases.
千百年来，传染病一直威胁着人类健康，不断给人类带来重大的灾难，甚至改变了人类历史的进程，例如，鼠疫、流感和天花等均曾多次发生世界性的大流行。传染病的发病与气候、地理环境、社会因素密切相关。随着社会的发展,预防和循证医学的发展取得了长足进步，一些传染病得到了有效控制，如天花已被消灭，脊髓灰质炎、麻风也即将被消灭。但是，由于人口的增长和城市化以及人类行为的改变，传染病的格局也在发生着变化，淋病、梅毒又死灰复燃，并且出现了一些新的传染病，如艾滋病、登革热、疯牛病、埃博拉出血热、传染性非典型肺炎（SARS）、人感染高致病性禽流感、甲型 H1N1 流感等；在部分地区，麻疹、风疹、手足口病、流行性出血热有增多趋势。这不仅给人类的健康带来了新的威胁，而且也给全球经济造成了巨大的损失。近年来，社区性细菌耐药性增强，结核病菌、淋球菌、志贺菌、沙门氏菌和肺炎球菌等细菌的耐药性最为明显，这也给人类健康造成了新的威胁。除大多数原有的传染病还在蔓延或重新肆虐外，新发现、多变异或尚无疫苗预防的传染病也随时会引起疫情暴发，威胁人类健康，影响社会稳定。传染病仍会在未来持续较长的时间，人类与传染病的斗争还未结束。