Water resources are an important material basis for maintaining human survival and promoting social development. The development and utilization of water resources is an aspect of transforming and utilizing nature. With the rapid development of China's economy, water shortages and water pollution have become increasingly serious. Therefore, it is particularly important to strengthen the rational development and sustainable use of water resources. At the same time, the development of economy and science and technology also makes the water conservancy enterprise in the lifeblood of the national economy and the position of the basic industry more prominent. The improvement of water conservancy construction is of great significance to further promote the development and utilization of hydropower, protect the ecological environment and promote China's economic development.
This book first introduces the status quo and problems of water resources development and water conservancy project construction. The next six chapters are the foundation for water resources development, water resources development and utilization, water resources development and utilization projects, water conservancy projects, water conservancy and hydropower projects, and construction management of engineering projects. They elaborate the theory, technology and construction of water resources development.
As the book contains more content, involves more cumbersome knowledge, and has more compilers, the format, depth and breadth of the contents of each chapter may not be inconsistent; and the fallacies are inevitable. Readers are invited to criticize and correct. Suggestions for improvement will be gratefully received.
Hydrogeology refers to the changes and movements of groundwater in nature. Hydrogeology is the science of studying groundwater. It is a branch of geology, which mainly studies the distribution and formation of groundwater, the physical properties and chemical composition of groundwater, groundwater resources and their rational utilization, the adverse effects of groundwater on engineering construction and mining and their prevention and control. With the development of science and the needs of production and construction, hydrogeology is divided into regional hydrogeology, groundwater dynamics, hydro geochemistry, water supply hydrogeology, mine hydrgeology, soil improvement hydrogeology and other sub-disciplines.
Rational development and utilization of water resources is the embodiment of the concept of sustainable development in water resources. While taking into account social economy and environmental protection, water resources are effectively exploited. In addition, this activity can be continued.
This book was divided into 12 chapters to analyze and elaborate hydrogeology and water resources development. We hope it will help some of the relevant staff.
As the most critical part of the whole process of engineering construction projects, water conservancy project design determines the key to the success of the project. The core of water conservancy project design quality management is to establish a set of systematic project management system, so that the design unit can solve the problems existing in project design stage between the owner, the government construction related departments and other relevant units or institutions involved in the project construction. In the design of water conservancy projects, only the combination of professional design and project cost preparation can ensure that the designed project results are scientific, reasonable and economically feasible. With the rapid development of the social economy, China's water conservancy industry has made great progress. The quality of water conservancy projects directly affects the normal life of the surrounding residents. The concrete construction of water conservancy projects needs to be carried out according to the engineering design. Therefore, the scientific design will inevitably affect the quality of the project, so the construction personnel must constantly improve the design of water conservancy projects to further control the occurrence of safety hazards. The book mainly analyzes the necessity of improving the current water conservancy project design, and proposes corresponding improvement measures according to the existing deficiencies, hoping to provide relevant reference to relevant people.
Any project needs to go through the design stage before construction to provide a reference for the construction of the project, as well as in water conservancy projects. Before the construction, the design unit will go to the construction site to conduct detailed investigation and understanding of the geological and hydrological conditions, climatic conditions and the surrounding environment, and then make a design plan based on the actual points of the project. In the design process, for which problems need to be paid attention to in the construction process, the process arrangement of each construction stage, the construction progress of the project, and various cost and expenditure will be clearly marked. If the actual construction estimation is insufficient at a certain stage, it will affect the quality of the construction, and then there will be changes in the cost and expenditure, which will seriously affect the smooth progress of the construction.
As an important construction project connecting different regions, roads and bridges have an important impact on China’s economic development and cultural exchanges. As the saying goes: “To be rich, build roads first”. With a developed transportation system, it is possible to achieve better economic and cultural development in China’s vast territory. Therefore, the importance of municipal roads and bridges engineering is obvious, and the current quality requirements for roads and bridges are becoming stricter.
Over the years, with the development of urbanization, the quality of municipal road construction and water supply & drainage project has been greatly improved; while the urban transportation system has been continuously improved. Compared with the backward transportation system in the past, it has fundamentally improved and achieved leap-forward development. However, a series of municipal engineering problems were also reflected in those "crisp buildings" reported by various news sources a few years ago and various shoddy projects for now.
First of all, the construction quality supervision system is imperfect, and the management loopholes are large. Some government officials abuse their power, draw illegal interests from the construction of the project, and cut corners. The quality of construction is difficult to guarantee. Secondly, the level of construction technology is not high. Many technical problems cannot be fundamentally solved, but only traditional construction methods are used. Finally, due to the neglect of the maintenance work of the bridge, a series of quality problems such as collapse of the bridge and delamination of the pavement have occurred. There’s huge potential safety hazard.
Therefore, this book is divided into three parts to elaborate and analyze the municipal roads & bridges and water supply & drainage projects, hoping to promote the development of China’s municipal engineering construction.
With the continuous advancement of science and technology, the rapid development of the global economy, and the rapid increase in population, the land is seriously desertified, the cultivated land is gradually decreasing, natural disasters are frequent, and the greenhouse effect is expanding. It can be seen that the ecological environment has been seriously damaged. The problem of human survival is increasingly threatened. More and more people are paying attention to the protection of the ecological environment. The concept of harmonious development between human and nature has gradually penetrated into people’s hearts. How to balance economic development, resource development and environmental protection is an important issue that needs to be solved in this era.
The traditional construction industry is not only the pillar industry of the national economy, but also one of the three major energy-consuming industries. Its problems of high emission, high investment and high pollution have been very serious. According to relevant data, the construction industry accounts for 30% of the world's total energy consumption. In China’s new buildings, high loss types account for up to 80%. The coverage area of green buildings in existing buildings is only 760 million square meters, and the effective utilization rate of building energy is less than 30%. At the same time, according to the latest statistical yearbook, the total consumption of building energy in China increased from 53.09 million tons to 70.17 million tons of standard coal in 2010-2013, and the proportion of the total energy consumption of China is also increasing. The development of the construction industry should contribute to the national economy and promote low-carbonization of the industry from various angles, such as deepening reform and innovation, improving energy efficiency, and reducing environmental pollution, etc.
China’s economy has long been a short-sighted and rough economic development model at the expense of environmental pollution. It is characterized by high energy consumption, high loss, low life and land use. With the continuous progress of the society, it is obvious that this method is no longer suitable for the development trend of the current world, so it is necessary to realize the ecological and green construction industry as soon as possible. On the other hand, with the continuous development of environmental protection concepts, the ecological and green construction industry has also received extensive attention from experts and the general public. China’s economy is in rapid development, and China’s urbanization development is accelerating. In the future, China’s large housing demand will be still very strong. In the past, housing was only a place to provide shelter for the people. Today, people have more environmental health and quality assurance requirements for housing. At the same time, they are more eager for harmony between human settlements and nature. The development and construction management of green buildings is gradually received wide attention from all over the world.
Therefore, this book provides a detailed overview and analysis of green building construction and project management from eight chapters, hoping to promote the development of China’s green building industry.