With the development of China’s economy, China’s transportation industry has been greatly developed, and China’s highway industry has also made considerable development. However, the construction and maintenance of highways need to be further improved. Only by ensuring the normal operation of highway construction and maintenance, can we reduce the quality problems of highways in China and ensure the normal use of highways.
There are six chapters in this book. The introduction part briefly introduces the current situation and future of China’s highway construction and development, and the achievements of the state and individuals in the field of highway construction. And then it introduces the road planning, measurement, design, construction machinery and materials and other road construction preparations, focusing on the subgrade, pavement construction technology, new problems and solutions in the process of highway construction project management and road maintenance, with a view to contribute to the stable and healthy development of China’s highway.
With the rapid development of China’s economy, construction has become the most dynamic industry. Throughout the country, tens of thousands of high-rise buildings have sprung up; the rapid development of highway and railway construction has made remarkable achievements. The crisscross highway network and railway network continue to extend and improve, effectively promoting the sustained, rapid and healthy growth of the national economy.
Highway engineering construction project is a one-time project, which is characterized by large scale, many variable factors, strong mobility of construction units and fierce industry competition. These characteristics require that the management of the project must be strengthened, so that the highway construction enterprises can set up the construction organization, set up the construction team and organize the implementation process of the project according to the requirements of the project management. At the same time, it is necessary to ensure that the progress, quality, labor, machinery, materials, cost, safety, environment, data, completion acceptance and other aspects of the project can be coordinated with each other and well controlled to ensure the smooth completion of the project.
At the same time, with the emergence of new technology, new technology, new equipment and new materials, the demand for highway engineering personnel is higher and higher. The professional level and management ability of technical personnel in the basic construction organization of highway engineering have become the key to the orderly, efficient and high-quality completion of highway engineering construction projects. In view of this situation, we have compiled Highway and Bridge Construction and Project Management to facilitate the use of highway engineering personnel.
Due to the limited professional level and teaching level of the editor, insufficient data collection and collation, and short writing time, errors and deficiencies are inevitable.Readers are welcome to criticize and correct them for better revision in the future.
In order to adapt to the modern high-speed development of the transportation industry, the bridge is also extended to span mountains and rivers, bad geology or meet other traffic needs to set up buildings to make the traffic more convenient. It provides great convenience for people to travel. Since the 21st century, the construction of highway & bridge in our country has entered the most brilliant period. A large number of long-span cable-stayed bridges, suspension bridges and arch bridges with novel structure, complex technology, difficult design and construction, high modern grade and high technology content have been built in China. Rich experience in bridge design and construction has been accumulated. The construction level of highway & bridge in our country has ranked first in the world.
As an important guarantee of human development, transportation has attracted more and more attention of human beings. As an important form of bridge construction, bridge has been developing and progressing constantly. This book aims at the development of bridge construction in our country, then analyzes the construction technology of highway & bridge, analyzes the common quality problems and prevention measures of bridge construction, and finally aims at the new technology, materials and technology in the public application of highway and bridge construction.
The construction of highway & bridge engineering has characteristics of strong fluidity, many temporary facilities and complex construction procedures. These characteristics determine that the highway & bridge construction has a high safety risk. In addition to the rapid expansion of the scale of highway construction team and the uneven technical level of construction personnel, the construction safety technology and risk control is particularly important. “There is no small matter for safety and detail determine the success”. In the prevention and advanced control of the safety management of highway and bridge construction, we should pay attention to every small matter, pay attention to every detail, make the small matter detailed, make the details strict, practical and in place, and make safety to the refined management.
Bridge plays an important role in the development of national economy in China. Standardization construction has become an important reference for bridge construction management, so as to ensure the safety of bridge construction, improve construction quality and create more economic and social benefits.
Limited to the level of editors, mistakes and deficiencies are inevitable. Readers are welcome to criticize and correct the mistakes, omissions and irregularities found in the use of this book. It will be appreciated very much.
Under the background of economic globalization and higher education internationalization, the financial work of colleges and universities is more and more important as the central work of personnel training, scientific research, social services and so on, and gradually moves from the edge of higher education management to the core of higher education management.
Financial management is one of the core parts in the management of colleges and universities. It not only undertakes the important task of raising and distributing funds for colleges and universities, but also manages the funds of colleges and universities, such as accounting, supervision and assessment, which has a direct impact on the connotation and extension construction and development of teaching and scientific research. At the end of the 20th century, after a large-scale enrollment expansion, China’s higher education has gradually achieved popularization. With the continuous expansion of the scale of running a university, the increasingly complex economic activities, the contradiction between the supply and demand of funds is more prominent, the source and application of funds are diversified, so the financial situation of the university is facing a more complex situation. It is of great significance for the stable development of colleges and universities, the construction of education and the cultivation of social talents to study the financial management of colleges and universities in China.
Under the development trend of market economy globalization, knowledge economy marketization and global economic integration, in order to better adapt to the needs of university running autonomy, diversified economic interests, complicated economic relations and refined financial management, and to further improve the needs of modern university management, the financial work in colleges and universities must focus on the reform and development of financial management, innovate the system, invigorate the mechanism, improve the system and standardize the management.
Due to the limited time and ability, although we have done our best in the process of writing this book, there are still some mistakes and improprieties in the book. Readers are welcome to criticize and correct them.
财务管理是高校管理工作中的核心部分之一，不仅承担着为高校筹集、分配资金的重要任务，同时还必须对高校资金进行核算、监督、考核等管理工作，其对教学科研内涵及外延建设和发展起着直接的影响。 在 20 世纪末经历了规模较大的扩招后，我国高等教育已逐步实现了大众化。随着高校办学规模的不断扩大，经济活动日益复杂，经费供求矛盾更加突出，资金来源与运用呈现多元化，因此高校财务面临着更加复杂的局面。研究我国高校财务管理问题，对高校稳定发展、对我国教育事业建设和社会人才培养都具有重要的意义。
In the field of microbiology, the development of molecular biology, molecular genetics and ecology has promoted the development of environmental microbiology. Many microbial application technologies have penetrated into the environmental protection work, and played an important role in improving human living environment and eliminating environmental pollution. Microorganism is the basic component of natural ecosystem, which is closely connected with material circulation and energy flow. It decomposes all kinds of organic matters in the environment, including all kinds of wastes and organic pollutants generated by human activities, maintains the relative balance of natural ecosystem while maintaining its growth and reproduction, and helps human beings“clean” the environment.
Environmental microbiology is a professional basic course for environmental protection majors. It provides students with the necessary basic theories and experimental skills of microorganisms for learning water pollution control engineering, air pollution control engineering, environmental monitoring, solid waste treatment and utilization and other professional courses. Higher vocational colleges train high skilled applied talents to meet the needs of production, service and management. For this purpose, the compilation of this textbook systematically introduces the basic knowledge of microbial morphology, structure, nutrition, metabolism, growth and reproduction, and genetic variation in accordance with the principles of “theoretical teaching sufficiency” and “practice, practicality and practice”. On the basis of meeting the needs of subsequent courses, some contents are adjusted and deleted. For example, the metabolism of microorganisms is only introduced the metabolism of production capacity. In the practical application of microorganisms, the influence of microorganisms on the environment, the role of microorganisms in the natural material circulation, and the application of microbial technology in environmental management are introduced. The experimental part includes the basic skills and operation methods of microorganisms, the detection of microorganisms in water and air, the separation, screening and cultivation of high efficient pollutant degradation strains.
Due to the limited level of editors, it is difficult to avoid the mistakes or omissions in the book. We sincerely ask our colleagues and readers to criticize and correct them.