Civil engineering is a general term of science and technology for the construction of various engineering facilities. It refers to the applied materials, equipment and technical activities such as survey, design, construction, maintenance and repair, as well as the objects of engineering construction, that is, various engineering facilities that built on the ground or underground, on land or in water, directly or indirectly for human life , production, military, scientific research services, such as houses, roads, railways, transportation pipelines, tunnels, bridges, canals, dams, ports, power stations, airports, offshore platforms, water supply and drainage, and protection projects. Reasonable design is not only related to the level of construction, but also inseparable from the development of the country’s basic industries and the safety of people’s lives and property. At the same time, in actual civil engineering construction, superb design can often optimize the construction steps and even shorten the construction period. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of civil engineering construction technology, this book explains the operation of traditional civil engineering construction technology, points out the key points of the application of new technologies in civil engineering construction, makes a technical analysis and summary of civil engineering construction technology, and makes a prospects on the development of civil engineering construction technology. Civil engineering construction technology is constantly exploring, innovating and developing; it has been used in engineering construction and achieved good economic and social benefits. We must always maintain the vitality of innovation, develop and apply new technologies, and continuously improve the construction technology of civil engineering.
In recent years, due to the improvement of living standards, changes in the diet structure, the increasingly tense life rhythm and the lifestyle of less movement and more sitting, the global incidence of diabetes has increased rapidly, and the impact of diabetes on people’s health in China has become increasingly serious. In addition, there are still many problems in the prevention and treatment of diabetes in China such as the low penetration rate of relevant knowledge about diabetes, and the general public’s awareness of diabetes does not match the trend of diabetes epidemic. Experts pointed out that because people’s diet structure is changing from plant type to animal type, high-fat and high-calorie foods are increasingly filling our lives, and the knowledge of diabetes and the concept of healthy life are not universal enough, which all
put forward higher requirements for the prevention and treatment ability and diabetes education in China.
Therefore, this book will elaborate on the introduction of diabetes, acute complications of diabetes, chronic complications of diabetes, and treatment of diabetes, combined with diabetes and its comorbidities, comprehensive management of diabetic patients, and care of special diabetes population.
With the development of building water supply and drainage engineering, it is gradually becoming a relatively independent engineering discipline, which covers more and more contents and contains more and more complex systems. How to optimize the design of building water supply and drainage engineering is a problem that designers often face. As for the technology of building water supply and drainage engineering, the current situation depends on the summary of experience, but people’s experience is limited. With the emergence of large-scale, multi-functional and super high-rise buildings in economic construction, new requirements for building water supply and drainage engineering are put forward.
This book first outlines the technical content and current situation of building water supply and drainage engineering, optimization of building water supply and drainage engineering system, and water-saving technology of building water supply and drainage engineering. Then from the construction and optimization of building water supply pipeline, building water supply system, building fire water supply system, building drainage system, building sewage treatment, building reclaimed water system, residential water supply system and residential drainage system, the paper elaborates all aspects of building water supply and drainage engineering. Among them, a lot of space is used to elaborate and summarize the current key problems of water supply and drainage in high-rise buildings and residential areas.
The purpose of our book is to provide a practical textbook and reference book for the majority of architectural designers and practitioners in the construction industry. However, because the book covers a wide range of contents and involves complicated knowledge, the format, depth and breadth of the contents of each chapter may not be the same, and fallacies are inevitable. Readers are welcome to criticize and correct them.
Since the beginning of the 21st century, in order to promote the sustainable and healthy development of economy and accelerate the process of socialist modernization, China has clearly put forward the urbanization strategy, and the speed of urbanization has been accelerating. The corresponding infrastructure construction, such as urban indemnificatory residential engineering, transportation facilities, urban water supply, gas supply and heating facilities has also developed. However, at present, the funds in China’s financial budget are far from meeting the needs of infrastructure construction. At the same time, the private surplus funds have expanded unprecedentedly and maintained stable development. How to make better use of these non-governmental capital and let it participate in the infrastructure construction of our country has become a realistic problem in front of us. The development of public private partnership (PPP) provides a way to solve this problem.
After the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the country has strengthened the Reform and Opening up. From the first mention of PPP mode at the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee to the introduction of relevant policies by the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Finance, PPP mode has been gradually popularized in China and relevant policies have been gradually improved. PPP model not only uses idle social funds to relieve the pressure of financial budget funds, but also enables the government and the private sector to establish a cooperative relationship in the field of infrastructure construction, develop strengths and avoid weaknesses, and complement each others’ advantages, so as to better play their respective roles and advantages, reasonably allocate resources, put an end to resource abuse, optimize the allocation of resources, improve the use efficiency of resources, meet the public demand, improve the social governance function, and ensure the quality of infrastructure and public products.
进入 21 世纪以来， 为促进经济的持续健康发展， 加快社会主义现代化建设进程，我国明确提出城镇化战略，城镇化速度不断加快，相应的城市保障性居住工程、运输设施、城市供水供气供暖设施等基础设施建设也随之发展。但是，当前我国财政预算内的资金远远无法满足基础设施建设的需要，与此同时，民间剩余资金却空前膨胀，且保持了稳定发展。如何更好地利用这些民间资本，让其参与到我国基础设施建设中，成为摆在我们面前的现实问题。政府和社会资本合作模式（Public Private Partnership，简称 PPP 模式）的发展为解决这一问题提供了思路。
党的第十八次全国代表大会以后，国家加大了改革开放的力度。从党的十八届三中全会首次提到 PPP 模式，到国家发改委、财政部等陆续出台相关政策， PPP 模式在国内逐渐得到了普及，相关政策也得到了逐步完善。 PPP 模式不仅利用社会闲置资金缓解了财政预算资金压力，而且使得政府部门和私营部门在基础设施建设领域建立起合作关系，扬长避短，优势互补，从而更好地发挥了他们各自的作用以及各自的优势，合理调配资源，杜绝资源滥用，优化了资源的配置，提高了资源的使用效率，满足了公共需求，完善了社会治理功能，保障了基础设施和公共产品质量。
In today’s world, the refined rate of chemical products has replaced the ethylene production, which has become a symbol of the development level of chemical industry in various countries. China and developed countries are carrying out strategic transfer of chemical industry, and vigorously accelerating the development of fine chemical industry. Fine chemical industry is a sunrise industry of chemical industry and an important part of modern high-tech field. It has become a new growth point with strong vitality and economic benefits for China’s chemical industry. In recent years, the developed countries have been increasing the research and development of fine chemicals. After decades of development in China, fine chemical products can basically meet the needs of national economic development, and have been widely used in daily life and various fields of national economy. Some fine chemical technology has entered the international advanced ranks. With the support of the state for the development of fine chemical industry and the continuous progress of high and new technology, the technical level and independent innovation ability of fine chemical industry in China will be improved rapidly in the future.
This book is written by the author on the basis of many years of scientific research and teaching work in the field of fine chemical industry, referring to and summarizing the domestic and foreign technical documents about the production principle, process and process flow of fine chemical products. This book takes organic fine chemical products and new field fine chemical products as the core, takes the common and typical fine chemical product production process as an example, and discusses the corresponding production principle and process technology in detail, so as to facilitate the readers to master the relevant knowledge of fine chemical product production. The compilation system of the whole book is complete, with distinct engineering practice features and full and accurate materials. It not only suits the national conditions, but also tracks the engineering practice needs, pays attention to the combination of theory with practice, knowledge innovation, process and engineering innovation, and has strong theoretical and applicability. This book can be used as a reference for personnel engaged in the development, production, research, teaching, management and application of fine chemical products, as well as teaching materials for chemical engineering and technology, fine chemical industry, applied chemistry, petrochemical industry, pharmaceutical engineering, light chemical engineering, polymer material science and engineering, food science and engineering and other related majors in colleges and universities.
Due to the rapid development of fine chemicals at home and abroad, covering a wide range, and the limitations of the author’s level and data collection, it is inevitable that there are some defects in the book. Readers are welcome to criticize and correct them.