China is a major agricultural country. As a primary industry, the development of agriculture is directly related to national economy and people’s livelihood. In the development of traditional agriculture, due to the reliance on manpower, there are strong limitations in crop types, yields and other aspects. The development of agriculture is inseparable from the support of science and technology. If we can make full use of science and technology to promote and spread agricultural knowledge and apply it to specific agricultural production, not only can more agricultural workers understand the relevant technology to achieve the effect of technology promotion and popularization, but also can effectively improve the efficiency of agricultural production and reduce the degree of human labor.
In addition to agricultural technology development and basic theories, this book also focuses on the whole process of agricultural breeding, planting, growth, management from the aspects of genetic improvement of crops, crop planting, agricultural technology service mode and mechanism, agricultural operation and management, and quality and safety management of agricultural products in China. Also, it summarizes the experience of technology and management from traditional agriculture to modernization and mechanization in China. It is a rare agronomy tool book suitable for popularizing agricultural technology.
This book introduces the new concept of coal mine mechanical and electrical management, coal mine mechanical and electrical management system, coal mine mechanical and electrical safety assessment standard, coal mine production capacity verification, coal mine ventilation, pressure, drainage, lifting and transportation equipment selection calculation, three major protections, mechanical and electrical equipment integrity standard, coal mine mechanical and electrical equipment maintenance technical specifications, major production safety accidents and emergency rescue plan, selection and compilation of typical mechanical and electrical accidents in coal mines, etc. This book not only covers the necessary knowledge of mechanical and electrical management personnel, but also looks forward to the development concept of coal mine with the combination of coal mine automation informationization, which has certain guidance, practicability and scientific nature.
This book is full and accurate, practical and convenient for reference. It is a rare reference book for managers at all levels in mine, department, district and team of coal mine mechanical and electrical major. This book can be used as a reference for coal mine mechanical and electrical management personnel and engineering technicians, as well as for other professional coal mine management personnel.
Since the 1980s, the rapid development of information technology has greatly promoted the development of social productivity, and people’s production and life style have changed with each passing day. The climax of global information revolution, knowledge economy and sustainable development have attracted wide attention. After the 20th century, the high development of “digital information” has further promoted the development of intelligent buildings. As an important industry of our national economy and social development, the realization of digital information and intelligence in the construction industry plays a positive role in adjusting the industrial structure and improving the construction quality.
Intelligent building is a combination of modern technology and modern building technology, including equipment technology and information technology. The development of intelligent building is the process of enriching the function and connotation of traditional building. Its vitality lies in the continuous evolution of its technology and management concept. This evolution reflects people’s higher and higher requirements for building and itself, and also constantly subverts and promotes the new development of traditional building industry.
The development of intelligent building has gradually extended from the past with intelligent community as the key object to various industries of urban construction. Intelligent building has not developed as an individual, but has become a cell of intelligent city and even intelligent earth. According to the direction of China’s 13th Five Year Plan, before 2020, China’s new urbanization, a new round of regional economic smart city, energy conservation and emission reduction, environmental governance and a new generation of information network technology--Internet of things, cloud computing, big data, mobile Internet and other construction and development will enter a peak. Among them, it contains a huge development space for the intelligent building industry, which is a new opportunity and challenge for the intelligent building industry, which requires the intelligent building industry to continuously improve the overall brand strength of the industry, actively provide construction and technical services for the construction field and related industries, and constantly absorb the rapid development of information technology.
With the rapid development of building intelligent technology, it is stepping into a new stage, and it is inevitable to miss everything. Due to the short time and the limited professional quality and technical level of the author, if there is any mistake or omission in the book, readers and experts are welcome to criticize and correct them.
20 世纪 80 年代始，信息技术飞速发展，极大地促进了社会生产力的发展，人们的生产、生活方式随之发生了日新月异的变化。全球信息革命高潮、知识经济、可持续发展已引起广泛关注，20 世纪后，“数字信息化”的高度发展进一步推进了智能建筑的发展。作为我国国民经济和社会发展的重要产业，建筑业实现数字信息化、智能化对调整我国产业结构和提升建筑品质都有积极的作用。
智能建筑的发展由过去的以智能化小区为重点对象逐渐延伸至城市建设的各个行业，智能建筑已经不是作为个体单独发展，而是成为智慧城市甚至智慧地球的一个细胞。根据我国“十三五”规划的编制方向， 2020 年之前，我国新型城镇化、新一轮区域经济智慧城市、节能减排、环境治理及新一代信息网络技术——物联网、云计算、大数据、移动互联网等建设发展将进入高峰，其中，蕴含着智能建筑行业巨大的发展空间，对智能建筑行业来说是新机遇、新挑战，这就要求智能建筑行业不断提升行业整体品牌实力，积极面向建设领域和相关行业提供建设和技术服务，不断吸收快速发展的信息化技术。
Runaway investment in construction projects is a common phenomenon in the field of fixed investment in China. The construction project consumes a lot of labor, material and machine resources. It has a large investment, a long construction cycle and a strong comprehensiveness, which is related to the economic interests of all parties involved in the construction and has a significant impact on the national economy. At present, engineers and technicians often only pay attention to the quality control and progress control of the project in the field of engineering construction in China, ignoring the investment control of the construction project. Project cost management is a very important aspect of project management and one of the most important parts of project management science. Project cost management is a unique field of project management, which takes the project or construction project as the object, the cost determination and cost control as the main content, involves the technical and economic activities of the project, as well as the operation and management of the project.
Construction industry is one of the most important industries in China, which occupies a very important position in the macroeconomic structure. At present, China’s urbanization has entered a period of rapid development, also personal housing consumption is rising, and maintaining the price fluctuations in a reasonable range is an urgent task facing the government administration. In the future, the investment scale of real estate fixed assets will remain at a high level. The goal of project cost management is to use scientific management methods and advanced management means to reasonably determine the cost and effectively control the cost in accordance with the requirements of economic laws and the development trend of socialist market economy, so as to improve the investment efficiency and operation efficiency of construction enterprises. Through the project cost management control, we can improve the efficiency of capital use, improve the level of fixed asset management. And to some extent, we can curb the irrational growth of housing prices.
This book combines engineering cost and construction management, introduces engineering cost and cost management, cost valuation and index compilation, cost estimation and settlement, municipal engineering cost. It systematically expounds the theory of construction project cost, construction, technology, quality and safety management, providing theoretical guidance for construction project funds and project management. I hope more readers can read and give useful opinions.
建筑业是我国的重要产业之一，它在宏观经济结构中占据了十分重要的地位。我国目前城市化进入快速发展期，个人住宅消费不断上升，保持房价在合理区间波动，是我国政府管理部门当前面临的一个紧急又迫切的任务。未来房地产固定资产投资规模将继续维持在高位。工程造价管理，其目标就是按照经济规律的要求 , 根据社会主义市场经济的发展趋势，利用科学的管理方法和先进的管理手段，合理的确定造价，有效地控制造价，以提高投资效益和建筑企业的经营效益。通过工程造价管理控制，可以提高建设企业投入资本使用效率，提高固定资产管理水平，同时在一定程度上遏制房价非理性增长。
The fundamental purpose of project management is to meet or exceed the requirements and expectations of all parties concerned. Different stakeholders of the project have different requirements and expectations for the project. For example, the owner wants to obtain the maximum profit with the minimum investment, the contractor expects to obtain the maximum profit with the minimum cost and requires to expand employment and improve social benefits and etc. The fundamental purpose of project management is to maximize the project objectives and overall benefits, and to meet and even exceed these different requirements and expectations to the maximum extent.
The construction cost of construction project refers to the monetary form of the transfer value of the means of production consumed by the construction enterprise in the process of taking the project as the cost accounting object and the value created by the necessary labor of the workers. It is the sum of all production costs incurred in the construction of a project, including the amortization or rental cost of the main and auxiliary materials, components and parts, turnover materials, construction machinery shift or rental cost, wages and bonuses paid to the production workers, and all expenses incurred by the project management department (or branches, engineering offices) for organizing and managing the construction of the project.
The cost management of construction project is based on the overall goal of construction enterprises and specific requirements of the project. During the implementation of the project, the project cost is effectively controlled and other management activities, so as to achieve the purpose of strengthening the management, improving the cost management system, improving the cost accounting level, reducing the project cost and creating good economic benefits. Strengthening the cost management of engineering projects is the only way for construction enterprises to accumulate financial resources and enhance their competitiveness.