Forestry engineering project is a decision-making and implementation activity combining forestry investment behavior and forestry construction behavior. Affected by human, financial, material, time, technology, information and other resources, the project management is complex and needs to be completed by several units in cooperation. In order to learn from foreign advanced technology and management experience, in the process of implementing forestry projects with loans from international financial organizations, advanced technology and management concepts have been gradually introduced, especially the concept of environmental protection and management has been continuously strengthened, and now the environmental protection work of forestry projects has been improved, which has minimized the impact on biodiversity, water and soil loss. The impact of water and soil pollution has gradually achieved the goal of ecology and green, and provided more high-quality ecological products for the society. The implementation of environmental protection measures is essential to the implementation of the concepts of “harmonious coexistence of human and nature”, “respect for nature, conform to nature, and protect nature”, and is the key to the forestry construction in the way of production development, good ecology and environmental health.
In recent decades, China’s forestry has experienced the stage of wood production, and then realized the transformation to ecological construction. Nowadays, with the deepening of forest understanding, it is also practicing to build the forest into a comprehensive function of a complete ecological system, a developed forestry industry system and an advanced forest culture system. This will push China’s forestry to a new stage of building modern forestry. Under the guidance of modern forestry theory, it will inevitably cause profound changes in all aspects of traditional forestry production, which requires forestry managers and forestry science and technology personnel not only to comprehensively grasp all kinds of basic knowledge of forestry science, but also to clearly understand all kinds of connections between forestry theory and production development, so as to better serve modern forestry. This book has done a more systematic carding and exposition of these problems.
With the economic development and social progress, people’s living standards have been greatly improved. With the rapid growth of population and the increase of demand, the natural forest resources of materials become increasingly scarce. More and more people begin to pay attention to the protection of ecological resources such as forestry. The harmony between human and natural society has always been the common topic that people pursue. In order to speed up the pace of forestry ecological construction, we need to further protect the forestry ecological environment, maintain the forestry ecological security, and improve the level of forestry ecological construction.
This paper mainly introduces the protection of forest ecological resources and the prevention and control of related diseases and insect pests in China. Through the analysis of the history and trend of forestry development, the importance of ecological environment construction is recognized; through the introduction of the measures of ecological environment construction and the application of related technologies, we can further understand the forestry ecosystem. For the biodiversity in the forest ecosystem, we should strengthen its protection and monitoring efforts, at the same time, we should use scientific and reasonable ways to deal with the problem of diseases and insect pests. For the prevention and control of harmful organisms, the state should increase management efforts, and use drugs safely for prevention and control. The policy basis of modern forestry protection should take the protection of forest ecosystem into account and strive to achieve a balance between forest ecological development and forestry economic development, so as to promote the harmonious development of society and nature.
随着经济的发展，社会的进步，人们的生活水平有了极大的改善。人口的快速增长，需求的增长导致了材料的天然林资源愈加匮乏。更多地人们开始关注到林业等生态资源的保护问题。人类与自然社会的和谐相处一直是人们追求的共同话题。为加快林业生态建设步伐， 我们需要进一步保护林业生态环境， 维护林业生态安全，提高林业生态建设的水平。
As the main body of ecological economy, forestry can not only effectively promote the economic development of our country, but also promote the construction of our ecological environment system, which plays a crucial role in the sustainable development of our economy and society. With the gradual improvement of people’s awareness of ecological environment protection, China’s forestry ushered in new opportunities for development, but also will face greater challenges.
Forestry engineering project is a decision-making and implementation activity combining forestry investment behavior and forestry construction behavior. Affected by human, financial, material, time, technology, information and other resources, the project management is complex and needs to be completed by several units in cooperation. In order to learn from foreign advanced technology and management experience, Chinese governments at all levels started to implement “Forestry Development Project”, “National Afforestation Project”, “Forest Resource Development and Protection Project”, “Forestry Development Project in Poverty-stricken Areas”, “Forestry Sustainable Development Project”, “Forestry Comprehensive Development Project”, “Ecological Afforestation Project in Shandong Province”, “Guangxi Forestry Comprehensive Development and Protection Project” and other forestry engineering construction projects successively with World Bank loans since 1980s. In the 21st century, China has reached an agreement with the European Investment Bank, which has successively implemented forestry special framework loan projects and climate change response framework loan projects in 12 provinces and regions including Shandong, Liaoning, Guizhou and Jiangxi, involving timber forest, national reserve forest, forestry biomass energy, forest carbon sink, etc. The implementation of the forestry projects loaned by these international financial organizations has effectively made up for the insufficient investment of forestry funds and accelerated the cultivation of forest resources in China.
林业工程项目是一种林业投资行为和林业建设行为相结合的决策与实施活动，受人力、财力、物力、时间、技术、信息等多种资源的影响；项目在管理上具有复杂性，需要由若干单位共同协作完成。为借鉴国外先进的技术和管理经验，中国各级政府从 20 世纪 80 年代开始， 利用世界银行贷款相继启动实施了“林业发展项目”“国家造林项目”“森林资源发展和保护项目”“贫困地区林业发展项目”“林业持续发展项目”“林业综合发展项目”“山东生态造林项目”“广西林业综合发展和保护项目” 等一批林业工程建设项目； 进入 21 世纪， 又与欧洲投资银行达成协议，相继在山东、辽宁、贵州、江西等 12 个省区利用欧洲投资银行实施了林业专项框架贷款项目、应对气候变化框架贷款项目，涉及用材林、国家储备林、林业生物质能源、森林碳汇等建设内容。这些国际金融组织贷款林业项目的实施，有效弥补了林业资金投入不足的问题，加快了我国森林资源培育。
With the improvement of China’s economic level and the increasing demand of society for energy, coal and other mineral resources have always been the important energy in the production and construction of China. In order to meet the demand of China’s economic market for mineral resources, the basic construction and management of mine resources has become the key to the development of China’s mine engineering. The construction and supervision of mine engineering has its own characteristics. The complexity of mine engineering construction supervision is determined by the particularity of large investment scale, high construction requirements, long service life and heavy safety responsibility. This also puts forward higher requirements for mine engineering supervisors. In addition to the necessary professional and technical knowledge, mine engineering supervisors should also have a high sense of social responsibility and a strong ability of comprehensive coordination and crisis response, and at the same time, they should cultivate noble professional ethics and hard-working dedication.
The capital construction of coal industry has its own characteristics. The complexity of construction supervision is determined by the particularity of large investment scale, high construction requirements, long service life and heavy safety responsibility. This requires supervisors to have not only necessary professional and technical knowledge, but also a high sense of social responsibility and strong ability of comprehensive coordination and crisis response, as well as noble professional ethics and hard-working dedication. Supervisors should timely grasp the industry trends, learn advanced experience and work philosophy, and constantly improve their own quality and business ability, so as to adapt to the rapid development of the construction market.
With the development of economy, the transportation industry has gradually entered the stage of comprehensive transportation system. With the rapid development of transportation economics, a relatively perfect research theory and system of transportation economics has been formed. Transportation economics is a subject that studies and discusses the laws of transportation economy based on the application of economic principles and methods in transportation leading cities, so that students can have the level of economic demonstration, prediction, analysis and evaluation and decision-making on transportation problems. Through in-depth investigation and research, this book summarizes the latest methods in the field of transportation economics on the basis of gathering the advantages of many families and combining the characteristics of transportation industry.
Since the reform and opening up, China has accelerated the construction of transportation infrastructure, and transportation industry has become one of the key supporting industries. Especially since the 1990s, China has taken a series of major measures to increase investment and promote the rapid development of transportation industry. However, there is a big gap between China’s current major transportation equipment and core technology level and the world’s advanced level. The transportation supply capacity is insufficient, the construction of comprehensive transportation system lags behind, various modes of transportation lack comprehensive coordination, and the problems of transportation energy consumption and environmental pollution are serious.
Looking forward to the 21st century, China’s transportation industry will continue to vigorously promote the construction of transportation infrastructure, rely on scientific and technological progress, strive to solve many key technical problems in transportation, including many challenges from the environment, energy, safety and other aspects, and build a sustainable new comprehensive transportation system to meet the needs of building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way Higher requirements for transportation.
改革开放以来，我国加快了交通基础设施建设，交通运输业成为重点扶持的支柱产业之一，尤其是 20 世纪 90 年代以来，我国采取了一系列重大举措，增加投资力度，促进了交通运输业的快速发展。但是，我国目前的主要运输装备及核心技术水平与世界先进水平存在较大差距，运输供给能力不足，综合交通体系建设滞后，各种交通方式缺乏综合协调，交通能源消耗与环境污染问题严峻。
展望 21 世纪，我国交通运输业将在继续大力推进交通基础设施建设的基础上，依靠科技进步，着力解决好交通运输中存在的诸多关键技术问题，包括来自环境、能源、安全等方面的众多挑战，建立起一个可持续性的新型综合交通运输体系，以满足全面建设小康社会对交通运输提出的更高要求。